Spinal Anatomy II Exam II All review questions Set II

Created by pantherrob82 

Upgrade to
remove ads

What rib-related changes may accompany lumbarization of T12?

a significant shortening of the mean relative length of 113 mm of the twelfth rib or it
becomes absent

What T12 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization?

the superior articular facet may change from flat, back, upward and lateral to
concave, back, upward and medial; the inferior articular facet is unchanged

What T11 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization?

the inferior articular facet may change from flat, forward, medial and downward to
convex, forward, lateral and downward; the superior articular facet is unchanged

What is characteristic of lumbarization of S1?

the failure of synostosis between S1 and S2. squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and
flaring of the sacral ala

What is failure of synostosis between Sl and S2?

the segments do not completely fuse together

What is squaring of the vertebral body of S1?

the S1 vertebral body has similar anterior and posterior heights, hence a lack of wedging

What is flaring of the sacral ala?

the transverse process of the ala appears to elevate as though separating from the rest
of the sacral ala

What articular facet changes accompany lumbarization of S1?

none

What is characteristic of sacralization of L5?

L5 may be partially or completely fused to the sacrum

What is the incidence of sacralization of L5 in the population?

41% to 85%

Which segment demonstrates the greatest morphological variation along the spine?

L5

What articular facet changes accompany sacralization of L5?

none

What is the incidence of variation within the sacrococcygeal region in the population?

up to 14%

What is characteristic of sacralization of Co1?

the premature fusion of C01 to the sacrum

What is characteristic of coccygealization of S5?

the separation of S5 from sacrum and its' premature fusion to C01

How are curvatures of the vertebral column identified?

according to the direction the convexity of the curve faces

What is the direction of the primary curve of the vertebral column?

posterior

What embryonic event causes the direction of the posterior curve of the vertebral column?

the embryonic disc will undergo flexion in a cranial to caudal direction

Why is the posterior curve also called the primary curve?

it is the first curve to appear embryologically

What segmental levels form the cervical curve?

C2-T1

What segmental levels form the lumbar curve?

T12-L5

What is the earliest time of appearance of the cervical curve?

the third fetal month

What is the traditional time of appearance of the cervical curve said to be?

during the last trimester in utero

What is the time during which the "adult" cervical curve is said to appear?

within the first year after birth

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?

centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain
musculature attaching the skull, cervical region and upper thorax together develops the head is held upright the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior

At what age will the infant begin to hold the head erect?

usually between the third and fourth month after birth

What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?

the righting reflex

What is the location for the apex of the cervical curve?

typically between C4 and C5

What is the location for the cervical kyphosis?

between occiput and C1

What is the name given to the primary cervical curve?

cervical kyphosis

What is the vertebral relationship between the cervical curve and the cervical enlargement?

cervical curve C2-T1; cervical enlargement C3-T1

What is the time of appearance of the lumbar curve?

between 12 and 18 months after birth

What infant activities are associated with the developmental of the lumbar curve?

crawling and walking

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?

crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward
muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development

What happens within the intervertebral disc to facilitate the lumbar curve development?

the nucleus pulposus of L4 will shift its position within the annulus fibrosis

Which sense is a requirement for holding the head erect, standing, sitting and walking?

vision

What is the gender bias associated with lumbar curve convexity?

females have a greater convexity of the lumbar curve

What is the vertebral relationship between the lumbar curve and the lumbar enlargement?

lumbar curve T12- L5; lumbar enlargement T9-T12

What is the formation of the lateral curve often correlated with?

faster development of the muscles on the side of handedness

What is the time of appearance of the lateral curves?

they appear after 6 years old

What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness?

a right handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve
combination

What is the incidence of a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination in the population?

about 80% of the population

Does "osis" infer a normal or an abnormal condition?

neither, it is non-judgmental

What clinical examples of abnormal curves along the vertebral column were stressed in class?

military neck, humpback or hunchback and swayback

What is military neck?

a decreased anterior curve in the cervical region, a straight neck

What is humpback or hunchback?

an increased posterior curve in the thoracic region

What is swayback?

an increased anterior curve in the lumbar region

What is classic classification of military neck?

a kyphosis

What is classic classification of humpback or hunchback?

a kyphosis

What is classic classification of swayback?

a lordosis

What does the use of the term lordotic try to imply?

a normal cervical and normal lumbar anterior curve

What does the use of the term kyphotic try to imply?

a normal thoracic or dorsal curve and a normal pelvic or sacrococcygeal posterior curve

What prefixes are used to convey abnormality in curve patterns?

hyper and hypo

What does the term hyperlordotic infer?

an increase in the anterior curve of the cervical or lumbar region

What does the term hypolordotic infer?

a decrease in the anterior curve of the cervical or lumbar region

What does the term hyperkyphotic infer?

an increase in the posterior curve of the thoracic/dorsal or pelvic/sacrococcygeal region

What does the term hypokyphotic infer?

a decrease in the posterior curve of the thoracic/dorsal or pelvic/sacrococcygeal region

What are the curve classifications for military neck?

a kyphosis or hypolordotic curve

What are the curve classifications for humpback or hunchback?

a kyphosis or hyperkyphotic curve

What are the curve classifications for swayback?

a lordosis or hyperlordotic curve

What is the more complete, accepted definition of scoliosis?

an abnormal lateral curve coupled with axial rotation

What is the relationship between degrees of lateral curve deviation, axial rotation, and care?

curves with 10 - 20 degrees of lateral deviation and a fixed angle of trunk rotation
have scoliosis curves with 20 - 30 degrees of lateral deviation and a fixed angle of trunk rotation of
5 degrees require attention curves with 30-50 degrees of lateral deviation and a fixed angle of trunk rotation of
7 degrees require intervention as they have a 60% chance to worsen curves with greater thi;1O50 degrees of lateral deviation have a 90% chance to worsen

What is the radiological test for skeletal maturity?

he Risser sign, an indication of bone maturity in the iliac apophysis

What are the classifications of scoliosis according to the Scoliosis Research Society?

magnitude, location, direction, etiology and structural/non-structural

What does magnitude of scoliosis refer to?

the length and angle of the curve deviation on x-ray

What is often used to measure the magnitude of scoliosis?

the Cobb Method

What does location of scoliosis infer?

the location on the vertebral segment forming the apex of the curve deviation

What does direction of scoliosis refer to?

he sid~ the convexity of the curve will bend toward

What is nonstructural scoliosis?

a mild form of scoliosis, unlikely to worsen, not associated with structural deformities of
the vertebra or intervertebral disc and lacks a fixed angle of trunk rotation

What is structural scoliosis?

a more radical form of scoliosis, it may worsen, associated with structural deformities of
the vertebra or intervertebral disc, frequently has a fixed angle of trunk rotation

What are some of the classifications of scoliosis based on etiology?

congenital, neuromuscular, neurofibromatosis, nerve root irritation, idiopathic

Which classification of scoliosis is unique to the individual patient?

idiopathic scoliosis

What does idiopathic scoliosis infer?

the scoliosis is unique to the individual, it has no known cause, unknown etiology

What is the incidence of idiopathic scoliosis in the population?

1% to 4% of the population

Based on age of onset, what are the types of idiopathic scoliosis?

infantile, juvenile and adolescent

What is the age range for infantile idiopathic scoliosis?

from birth to 3 years old

What is the age range for juvenile idiopathic scoliosis?

from 3 years old to 10 years old

What is the age range for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

over 10 years old

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of infantile idiopathic scoliosis.

left thoracic, male, less than 1% incidence

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis.

right thoracic, females over 6 years old, 12% - 21% incidence

dentify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

right thoracic or right thoracic and left lumbar, females, 80% incidence

What is the genetic factor associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

an autosomal dominant factor that runs in families

hat is the relationship between curve deviation, incidence, and curve worsening?

the greater the deviation, the lower the incidence and the more likely to worsen

What does the word "splenius" mean?

Greek for bandage

What part of the vertebra forms the osseous origin for the splenius?

spinous process

Splenius capitis will attach to what locations on the skull?

mastoid process of temporal bone, superior nuchal line of the occipital bone

Contraction of splenius capitis will result in what movements?

lateral flexion of head. rotation of face to the side; bilaterally they extend the head

What is the innervation of the splenius capitis?

dorsal rami of middle cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5 cord levels)

Splenius cervicis will attach to what locations on the spine?

lateral mass of C1 & posterior tubercle of transverse process on C1-C4

Contraction of splenius cervicis will result in what movements?

lateral flexion & rotation of neck; bilaterally they extend the neck

What is the innervation of the splenius cervicis?

dorsal rami of lower cervical spinal nerves (C5-C7 cord levels)

Which muscles represent the fourth layer of the true back?

the erector spinae or sacrospinalis muscles

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis lumborum?

spinous processes of T11-L5, median sacral crest, lateral sacral crest

What is the insertion for the iliocostalis lumborum?

costal angles of the lower 6-9 ribs (rib6-rib 12 or rib 3-rib 12)

Contraction of iliocostalis lumborum will result in what movements?

extension, lateral flexion & rotation of lumbar spine; lateral pelvic movement

What is the innervation of the iliocostalis lumborum?

dorsal rami of lower thoracic and all lumbar spinal nerves

What muscles are identified as subdivisions within the iliocostalis muscles?

iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum & iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis

42. What is the insertion for the iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum?

iliac crest of the innominate bone

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis?

posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) & iliac crest of the innominate bone

What is the insertion for the iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis?

costal angles of the lower 8-9 ribs (rib 3 or 4-rib 12)

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis thoracis?

none

What is the origin for the iliocostalis thoracis?

costal angles of the lower 6-7 ribs (rib 5'or 6-rib 12)

What is the insertion for the iliocostalis thoracis?

costal angles of the upper 6-7 ribs, transverse process of C7

What osseous part of the vertebral column serves as an insertion for the iliocostalis thoracis?

transverse process of C7

Which subdivision of the iliocostalis primarily originates & inserts on ribs?

iliocostalis thoracis

What is the innervation of the iliocostalis thoracis?

dorsal rami of upper 6 thoracic spinal nerves (T1-T6 cord levels)

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis cervicis?

none

What is the origin for the iliocostalis cervicis?

costal angles of the upper 3-6 ribs (ribs 1-3 or ribs 1-6)

What is the insertion for the iliocostalis cervicis?

posterior tubercle of transverse process of C(3) 4-C6

Contraction of iliocostalis cervicis will result in what movements?

extension, lateral flexion & rotation of the lower cervical spine

What is the innervation of the iliocostalis cervicis?

dorsal rami of T1, T2 spinal nerves, sometimes c8 spinal nerve (C8, T1, T2 cord levels)

What muscles are classically identified as longissimus muscles?

longissimus thoracis, longissimus cervicis and longissimus capitis

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the longissimus thoracis?

accessory process & transverse processes of L1-L5, spinous processes of L3-L5 and
median sacral crest S1-S3

What innervates the rotator brevis attaching to C2?

the dorsal ramus of C2 is believed to do so

What innervates the rotator longus attaching to C2?

the dorsal ramus of C2is believed to do so

What muscles are included in the suboccipital muscle group?

rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor, obliquus capitis inferior
and obliquus capitis superior

Which suboccipital muscle lacks an attachment to the skull?

obliquus capitis inferior

Which nerve will innervate all suboccipital muscles?

the dorsal ramus of C1, the suboccipital nerve

What is the origin of the rectus capitis posterior major?

the spinous tubercle of C2

What is the insertion of the rectus capitis posterior minor?

inferior nuchal line laterally

Contraction of rectus capitis posterior major will result in what movements?

turns the face to the side, bilaterally acts to extend the head

What is the origin of the rectus capitis posterior minor?

the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1

What is the insertion of the rectus capitis posterior minor?

inferior nuchal line medially

What is the origin of the obliquus capitis inferior?

C2 spinous process and lamina

What is the insertion of the obliquus capitis inferior?

transverse process of C1

Contraction of obliquus capitis inferior will result in what movement?

turns the face to the side

What is the origin of the obliquus capitis superior?

the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1

What is the insertion of the obliquus capitis superior?

between superior nuchal line & inferior nuchal line

Contraction of obliquus capitis superior will result in what movements?

lateral flexion/lateral bending of the head, bilaterally acts to extend the head

An increase in the density of muscle spindles is most apparent in which suboccipital muscle?

obliquus capitis inferior

Suboccipital muscle feedback relays to what 9dditionallocations in the brain?

extraocular nuclei of origin, primary visual cortex and vestibular nuclei

What is the result of communication between suboccipital muscles, visual centers and vestibular centers?

coordination of head and eye position

What is the proposed function of the suboccipital muscle group?

postural stabilizers of the atlanto.occipital and atlanto-axial joints

Which suboccipital muscle is known to attach to dura mater?

rectus capitis posterior minor

At what segmental levels of the spine will the interspinalis muscle be present?

C2-T3 and T11-L4 or L5

InterspinaliS is paired in which regions of the spine?

cervical and lumbar

At what locations will interspinalis be absent along the spine?

T3-T4 to T10-T11

What are the attachment sites for the interspinalis muscle?

spinous tubercle & spinous process of adjacent vertebrae

Contraction of interspinalis is traditionally said to result in what movement?

weak approximation of the spinous processes or extension of the spine

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the interspinalis?

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the interspinalis?

Intertransversarii are paired in which region(s) of the spine?

cervical and lumbar regions

Intertransversarii are unpaired in which region(s) of the spine?

thoracic

In which region of the spine are intertransversarii best developed?

cervical

What are the names of the parts of the intertransversarii in the cervical spine?

anterior belly, posterior lateral belly, posterior medial belly

Which of the cervical intertransversarii is innervated by dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves?

posterior medial belly, cervical intertransversarii

. What are the names of the parts of the intertransversarii in the lumbar spine?

medial belly, anterior lateral belly, posterior lateral belly

Which muscle group is innervated by both dorsal rami and ventral rami of spinal nerves?

intertransversarii

Contraction of intertransversarii is traditionally said to result in what movement?

weak approximation of transverse processes or lateral flexion (bending) of the spine

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the
intertransversarii?

acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with interspinalis to coordinate
the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set