cells exclusive to bacteria and archaea that do not have a nucleus
cells with a variety of organelles and have a nucleus
What are the characteristics of life?
Made of cells; growth and development; regulation of metabolic processes; respond to stumuli; reproduce; populations evolve and adapt
List the levels of organization, smallest to largest, of organisms
Chemical Level, Cellular Level, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere
made of only one type of atom
number of protons in an atom
number of combined protons and neutrons in an atom; average of all isotopes
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons and different properties
atoms that have gained or lost electrons
two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds
two or more atoms of different elements joined by a chemical bond
indicates type of atom, number of each type, number of molecules of a compound
shows arrangement of atoms in a compound
share pairs of electrons, strongest, fills outer shell
"medium" strength, attraction between cation and anion
weak bond between polar molecules
partial positive charge at one end, partial negative chard at other end
Oxidation reaction results in the ______ of electrons.
Reduction reaction results in the ______ of electrons.
the ability of water to cling to other substances, allows it to move up plants
the ability of water to stick to itself, allows water to move up plants
result of adhesion and cohesion, ability of water to move against gravity in a tube
What does it mean to have a "high specific heat"?
it takes a lot of energy to raise temperature (ex. water)
What does it mean to have a "high heat of vaporization"?
it takes lots of energy to go from liquid to gas (ex. water)
What are the seven major characteristics of water?
adhesion, cohesion, capillary action, surface tension, maintains stable temperatures, less dense as a solid, universal solvent
What are the two characteristics of organic compounds?
They always have Carbon and Hydrogen, are always covalently bonded.
What gives organic compounds their flexibility?
carbon's ability to form single, double, and triple bonds
anything with the same molecular formula, but different structures and properties
group of atoms added to the end of a molecule to change the properties
based on a set of repeating monomers
subunit of a specific macromolecule
condensation reaction // dehydration synthesis
builds polymers by removing water to join two monomers
adding water to polymers to break them into two monomers
What is the function of carbohydrates?
store energy (short term)
What are the functions of lipids?
store energy through fats, build cell membranes
covalent bond to join amino acids in proteins to make polypeptides
List and define the organization levels of protein.
Primary: Chain of amino acids
Secondary: coils and folds
Tertiary: 3d shape due to interactions of R-groups
Quaternary: Interactions between multiple chains (optional structure)
What does it mean for a protein to "denature" and what causes it?
the protein loses its ability to function if it no longer has the correct shape or if its bonds are broken by heat, change in pH, or chemicals.