Discovering Psychology Chapter 11

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Chapter 11 Terms Discovering Psychology 5th Edition Don Hockenbury and Sandra Hockenbury Tulsa Community College Psych 1113 Professor Don Hockenbury

in-group bias

The tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably (p. 471).

in-group

A social group to which one belongs (p. 471).

out-group homogeneity effect

The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another (p. 471).

out-group

Group to which we are not a member. (p. 471).

ethnocentrism

The belief that one's own culture of ethnic group is superior to all others, and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures (pp. 13, 471).

stereotype

A cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group (p. 470).

prejudice

A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group (p. 469).

cognitive dissonance

An unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal (dissonance) that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions (cognitions) are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict (p. 468).

attitude

A learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent (p. 466).

self-serving bias

The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes (p. 465).

just-world hypothesis

The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get (p. 464).

hindsight bias

The tendency to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome of an event (p. 464).

blaming the victim

The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it (p. 464).

fundamental attribution error

The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures (p. 463).

attribution

The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own. Also refers to the explanation made for particular behavior (p. 463).

implicit personality theory

A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors (p. 461).

social norms

The "rules," or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation (p. 460).

social categorization

The mental process of categorizing people into groups (or social categories) on the basis of their shared characteristics (p. 460).

implicit cognition

Automatic, nonconscious mental processes that influence perceptions, judgments, and reasoning (p. 460).

explicit cognition

Deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in perceptions, judgments, decisions, and reasoning (p. 460).

person perception

The mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people (p. 459).

social psychology

Branch of psychology that studies how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence or other people and by the social and physical environment (p. 458).

social influence

The effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior (p. 458).

social cognition

The mental processes people use to make sense out of their social environment (p. 458).

sense of self

An individual's unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences; your sense of who you are in relation to other people (p. 458).

persuasion

The deliberate attempts to influence the attitudes or behavior of another person in situation in which that person has some freedom of choice (p. 489).

diffusion of responsibility

A phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all onlookers (p. 487).

bystander effect

A phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress (p. 487).

prosocial behavior

Any behavior that helps another, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless (p. 486).

altruism

Helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit (p. 486).

obedience

The performance of a behavior in response to a direct command (p. 476).

normative social influence

Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval (p. 475).

informational social influence

Behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct (p. 475).

conformity

Adjusting your opinions, or judgments so that it matches those of other people, or the norms of a social group or situation (p. 474).

Philip G. Zimbardo (b. 1933)

American social psychologist, known for his research on cognitive dissonance and social influence, and especially for the Stanford Prison Experiment, which demonstrated how situational forces can impact behavior (p. 468).

Muzafer Sherif (1906-1988)

American social psychologist who is best known for his Robbers Cave experiments to study prejudice, conflict resolution, and group processes (p. 472).

Stanley Milgram (1933-1984)

American social psychologist who is best known for his controversial series of studies investigating destructive obedience to an authority (p. 476).

Bibb Latane (b. 1937)

Contemporary American psychologist who, along with co-researcher John Darley, is best known for his pioneering studies of bystander intervention in emergency situations (p. 486).

John M. Darley (b. 1938)

Contemporary American social psychologist who, along with co-researcher Bibb Latane, is best known for his pioneering studies of bystander intervention in emergency situations (p. 486).

Solomon Asch (1907-1996)

American social psychologist who is best known for his pioneering studies of conformity (p. 474).

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