Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Protective Tariff

taxes that would make imported goods cost more than those made locally

Laissez Faire

absence of government control over private business

Patent

official rights given by the government to an inventor for the exclusive right to develop, use, and sell an invention for a set period of time

Bessmer Process

method used to make steel more effectively

Mass Production

production of goods in large number through the use of machinery and assembly lines

Corporation

company recognized as a legal unit that has rights and liabilities separate from each of its members

Monopoly

exclusive control by one company over an entire industry

John D. Rockefeller

oil tycoon

Horizontal Integration

system of consolidating many firms in the same business

Trust

group of separate companies that are placed under the control of a single managing board in order to form a monopoly

Andrew Carnegie

steel tycoon

Vertical Integration

system of consolidating firms involved in all steps of a product's manufacture

Social Darwinism

the belief held by some in the late nineteenth century that certain nations and races were superior to others and therefore destined to rule over them

Sherman Antitrust Act

outlawed any trust that operated "in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states"

Sweatshop

small, hot, dark, and dirty workhouses

Company Town

community whose residents rely upon one company for jobs, housing, and shopping

Collective Bargaining

process in which employers negotiate with labor unions about hours, wages, and other working conditions

Socialism

system or theory under which the means of production are publicly controlled and regulated rather than owned by individuals

Knight of Labor

labor union that sought to organize all workers and focused on broad social reforms

Terence V. Powderly

leader of the Knights of Labor

Samuel Gompers

Founder/leader of the AFL

AFL

labor union that organized skilled workers in specific trades and made small demands rather than seeking broad changes

Haymarket Riot

1886 labor-related protestin Chicago which ended in deadly violence

Homestead Strike

1892 law that gave 160 acres of land to citizens willing to live on and cultivate it for five years

Eugene V. Debs

leader of the American Railway Union

Pullman Strike

violent 1894 railway workers' strike which began outside Chicago and spread nationwide

New Immigrant

immigrants from southern and eastern Europe

Ellis Island

island in New York Harbor that served as an immigration station for millions of immigrants arriving in the U.S.

Angel Island

Immigration processing station that opened in San Francisco Bay in 1910

Americanization

belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens

Nativism

belief that native-born white Americans are superior to newcomer

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882 law that prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers

Urbanization

expansion of cities; when people move from rural areas to urban areas

Skyscraper

very tall building

Mass Transit

public transportation systems that carry large numbers of people

Suburb

residential areas surrounding a city

Tenement

multistory building divided into apartments to house as many families as possible

Mark Twain

United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910)

Gilded Age

1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor

Conspicuous Consumption

Buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position

Mass Culture

An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation trips and team sports

Joseph Pulitzer

creator of the "New York World;"cut the prices so people could afford it; featured color comics and yellow journalism

William Randolph Hearst

Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set