Little Ice Age
temporary but significant cooling period during the fourteenth century; accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms; causing famines and dislocation
plague that struck Europe in 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure
the bacteria that causes the bubonic and pneumonic plague
when the bacterial ingection spread to the lungs, resulting in severe coughing, bloody sputum, and the relatively easy spread of the bacillus from human to human by coughing
Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron
Book set at time of Black Death;tells of 10 young people who flee to escape the plague and decide to tell stories;reflects cynical postplague values
punished themselves for their sins, by whipping themselves, hoping they could escape the plague, but ultimately led to more infections.
organized campaigns of violence against Jews permitted by Russian government officials; spread the persecution of Jews
Statute of Laborers
Document passed by English Parliament to attempt to limit wages to preplague levels and forbid the mobility of peasants
Peasant revolt in France caused by destruction of normal order by Black Death,economic dislocation and Hundred Years' War;failed when rebels were massacred
Wat Tyler and John Ball
a peasant and a preacher that led a revolt after the monarchy attempted to tax each adult of the population;King Richard II promised to accept the rebels' demands but arrested hundreds of them;poll tax was eliminated after and most rebels pardoned
An urban revolt in 1378; the poorest workers in Florence's wool industry rose in revolt because they had no voice in the government.
weapon English used against French in the Hundred Years' War;invented by the Welsh;more rapid speed of fire that crossbow
The Battle of Crecy
This battle was fought in 1346 where the English King Edward III and his son Edward the Black Prince fought the French and Philip VI. The English defeated the French with their longbows.
king of England during the Hundred Years' War who forced Charles VI to sign away his kingdom and took his daughter, Katherine, in marriage..oorrr, son of Henry IV and King of England from 1413 to 1422
The Battle of Agincourt
Took place in 1415.Another English victory thanks to the longbowmen. Chivalry saw its doom be spelt out. hahaha what now Lancelot!
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king, she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake
a city on the Loire river in north central France, a long siege by the English was relieved by Joan of Arc in 1429
Charles the Dauphin VII
Son of Charles VI he was disinherited by the Treaty of Troyes but still considered himself the rightful heir.
Weak and timid and was unable to rally the French against the English. He ruled the southern two thirds of France
The formula, brought to China in the 400s or 500s, was first used to make fumigators to keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannonballs, shot, and bullets. (p. 289)
The gabelle and taille
Taxes that were imposed during the Hundred Year's War
Dukes of Burgundy and Orleans
rival factions of French nobles who wanted power and wealth;competed to control Charles VI;nobles supported Orleanist faction;Paris and other towns favored Burgundians
Duke of Burgundy
Allied himself with the English, profited from the war with a lordship including Flanders
Duke of Orleans
Regent for LXV(great grandson of LXIV) who was only 5 in 1715. D of O was and elder cousin. Lacked authority of monarch and had to admit aristocrats to share in power. Now Sun King dead - nobility re-emerging and most people in France NOT pleased with absolutism because of impact of Louis XIV's wars. D of O worked through committees of noblemen(like ministers) which were largely incompetent and so he soon abandoned them. Parlements (law courts) were revived and judgeships became saleable(often to bourgeosie) and titles were sold(to raise money).
Golden Bull of Charles IV
Standardized electing German monarchy rather than hereditary one;stated 4 lay princes and 3 ecclesiastical rulers would serve as electors of King of the Romans/emperor
free cities; began with republican governments, dominated political life of central and Northern Italy (no monarchy); strife lead to temporary dictators who can become permanent by emperor; replaced regional states
The Visconti and d'Este
The effectual founders of the city of Milan who ruled until the early Renaissance. A European princely dynasty split into two branches. The elder branch was situated mostly throughout the Holy Roman Empire while the younger took hold in Italy.
leaders of bands of mercenary soldiers in Renaissance Italy who sold their services to the highest bidder
the conservative "old rich" class that ruled Florence
Florence's wealthy merchant industrialist class, literally "the fat people"
the craftsmen and labourers who were forbidden to organize into guilds. Since, in many communes, guild membership was a prerequisite for political office, they were effectively excluded from involvement in civic government. This discrimination generated much of the civic unrest that characterized Italian politics in the late Middle Ages and beyond.
Council of Ten and the Doge
Formed in the early fourteenth century, the Deici was chosen from the wealthiest patrician families to protect Venetian interests. Because of the broad extent of its judicial powers, it eventually became the most feared body in Venice. From this number they elected the doge, the head of the government for life.
Pope Boniface VIII's Unam Sanctam
the Pope prohibited the taxation of clergy by the civil leader. In 1302, he issued the famous bull, Unam Sanctam. The French king retorted by sending soldiers to arrest Boniface, who soon died.,
-papal bull, issued by Boniface VIII in 1302. Extreme assertion of papal supremacy. No salvation o/side RC Church & "every human creature" was "subject to the Roman pontiff." Creates tension with Fr. king, Philip the Fair. Power issue.
Popes of this place were French, and abused their power in such a way that they had great financial success, but lost political power. Because they were solely French, they had less influence outside of France. Germany and Italy openly defied this papacy. The Popes turned inwards, and managed to secure all the legal and financial success of the church for the Pope himself. They made money from sales of indulgences and church offices.
Catherine of Siena
Known for her ability to mediate conflicts among Italian city-states, she urged the pope to move the center of the curch from Avignon back to Rome.
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
Friedrich Nietzsche, during the great schism the two popes named the other as this
Some Cardinals tried to work together to end the Great Schism. They wanted to end the chaos, as everyone was exasperated with the popes. A problem-solving council of cardinals was opposed by both popes, because it would show that God's authority did not rest solely in the pope's hands.
Marsiglio of Padua
the publisher of Defensor Pacis. He argued that the state was the great unifying power in society and that the church was subordinate to the state. He put for the idea that the church had no jurisdiction and should have no property. He was excommunicated because of these ideas. (393)
Council of Constance
the council in 1414-1418 that succeeded in ending the Great Schism in the Roman Catholic Church, brought an end to the Great Schism, tried to deal with the heresy problem by burning John Hus, caused the Hussite wars
A state of final purification of the soul after death but before entrance into Heaven; this is for those who died in God's friendship but were only imperfectly purified.
Good deeds and pilgrimages
these were emphasized and became much more popular during late medieval Christianity because of emphasis on a mechanical path to salvation
Germany, d. 1327. One of series of mystics in Germany in 14th C - Expressed the belief that the individual could, in perfect solitude, commune with God. No need to be part of flock/congregation or under shepherd/priest. Mysticism was a movement found in parts of the north even before the spread of Renaissance Christian Humanism.
centered in the Netherlands, led by the Brothers of the Common life, which encouraged religious life outside the clergy, Northern German group about having a mystical, individual relationship with God; The Brethren of Common Love.
Brothers of the Common Life
an influential lay religious movement in the Netherlands that began in the Netherlands and permitted men and women to live a shared religious life without making formal vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. This group helped stimulate humanism in northern Europe
William of Occam
English scholastic philosopher and assumed author of Occam's Razor (1285-1349), philosopher who said that all universals or general concepts were just names and only objects perceieved by the sense were real;reason couldn't prove "God exists"
The doctrine of William of Occham that argued that human reason could not aspire to certain truth; conclusions can not be deduced from specific cases
The printing press printed works in this, which was the common language of the people. Showed the receding power of the Roman Catholic Church.
Dante's Divine Comedy
written in Italian, gives reader a tour of heaven, purgatory, and hell. used to make fun of people of his time (placed where he thinks fit). religious and secular.
Francesco Petrarca; the Canzoniere- inspired by his love for a woman named Laura; majority take form of the Italian Sonnet (Petrarchan sonnet); 14 lines divided into two parts- an octave of 8 lines (presents the problem)-sestet of six lines that either attempts to solve the problem and accepts it as unsolvable
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
collection of stories told by 29 pilgrims journeying from Southwark to tomb of St. Thomas Becket that brought new level of sophistication to English vernacular
Christine de Pizan
educated Italian women, smarter than men of her time, spoke French, Italian, and maybe Latin. became a writer to support her 3 children. wrote The City of Ladies which examined men's negative views of women, etc.
An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body
The 'four humors'
a traditional theory of physiology in which the state of health depended upon a balance among the four elemental fluids, Yellow bile (summer), Phlegm (winter), Blood (spring), Black bile (fall)
Clocks, eyeglasses, and paper
inventions of this time