AP Psych Chapter 1

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Empiricism

the view that knowledge that comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes through observation and experiment

Structuralism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

Functionalism

a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

Psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

Nature-Nurture Issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors

Neuroscience

how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences

Evolutionary

how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes

Behavior Genetics

how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences

Psychodynamic

how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

Behavioral

how we learn observable responses

Cognitive

how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

Social-cultural

how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

Basic Research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

Applied Research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

Clinical Psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

Psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy

SQ3R

a study method incorporating five steps: Study, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review

Plato and Socrates

these people concluded that mind is separable from body and continues after the body dies, and that knowledge is innate (built within us)

Aristotle

was different from his teachers because he believed that knowledge came from careful observation; said knowledge is NOT preexisting

Aristotle

came up with the theory that knowledge is not preexisting; it grows from the experiences stored in our memories

Wundt

established the first psychology laboratory

Descartes

agreed with Socrates and Plato; he conjectured how the physical body and the brain communicate

Bacon

believed that human understanding easily supposes a greater degree of order and equality in things than it really finds

Locke

argued that the mind at birth is a blank slate on which experience writes

Wundt

conducted psychology's first experiment

Titchener

developed the idea of structuralism

James

believed in studying the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings; developed functionalism

Calkins

female student of James, she was refused a Harvard degree; pioneer in memory research and American Psychological Association President

Washburn

first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D.

Watson

demonstrated conditional responses on "little Albert"

Skinner

a leading "behaviorist". he rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior

Pavlov

pioneered the study of learning

Freud

controversial personality theorist

Piaget

studied children

Watson

defined psychology as "the science of observable behavior"

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