Native Americans begin agriculture
Before the Europeans which led to growing population and division of labor.
Portuguese explorers faced obstacles while exploring because
They lacked efficient maps of the African coast.
Primary function of slavery in west Africa was it
gave people a place to go to who were cut off from their families.
1680 rebellion that led by a medicene man of the village of San Juan, north of Santa Fe. When katsina told him that the Spanish must be driven from the land, he organized a general insurrection. As pope supervised they Pueblos detroyed churches, broke up church bells and burned images of christ and the saints. Tried to seize control of New Mexico.
After the Treaty of Tordisillas
The Pope gave Portugal the east side (side with African slaves) and Spain the west side.
First to circumnavigate the around the world. Convinced Charles 1 of Spain that he could sail around the cape of South American and claim the Molucca Islands. Was Portuguese but his country gave him no support sine it already had profitable sea route to the East. Killed in the Philippines.
Contact among Native Americas, Europeans, and Africans after 1492 changed societies in both hemispheres. Transmission of disease, knowledge about food and technology, and culture. Also crops and livestock which diversified cultures.
Why did Henry VII break with the Catholic Church?
The pope refused to allow an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Henry wanted to marry Anne Boleyn.
Roanoke Island (present day North Carolina). All that was left was the word "Croatoan" carved in a tree. Walter Raleigh settled it.
What did the Franciscan missionaries expect their native convents to do?
To learn the catechism and enough of the Castilian (Spanish) language to communicate, and to adopt European dress, food, and farming methods.
What was the English attitude towards the purchase of native lands?
Lands not occupied they could take. Vaccuum domicilium. Believed the king of England, as the Christian monarch, received sovereignty over North America from God. Thus, the Virginia company obtained rights to land from the Crown, not the Indians.
Virginia census was taken in 1625, what did they conclude?
More than 3 quarters of the Virginia Company was male, nd less than one fifth were children. The census also provided ample evidence of mortality and disrupted families, as many of the married coupled couples were childless, in part because of the high infant and childhood mortality. And with short life expectancy for adults, more than 1/2 of the colony's children had lost one parent and 1/5 apparently had no relatives in Virginia at all.
Population growth remains slow in Quebec because?
The government refused to allow Protestants, who were the most likely immigrants, to settle there; it wanted to maintain control of the society through the Catholic church. Further, new France developed under feudal land tenure, in which wealthy lords received large manors (seigniories) along the st. Lawrence River. Ordinary settlers on these manors became tenants rather than independent farmers. Lacking to the opportunity to improve their status in the New World, French peasants were reluctant to make the dangerous transatlantic voyage.
What was the Mayflower compact?
A social compact by which the Pilgrims agreed to form a government and obey its laws. The pilgrims avoided a revolt by drafting and signing this. september 1620
Believed Massachusetts Bay colony would be "as a city upon a Hill, the eyes of all people are upon us; soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god....."Leader and then governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony.
City upon a hill
Massachusetts Bay colony. Believed they had a covenant with God that bound them to create a moral community. All eyes of the people were on them.
How did the colonists of Plymouth get their colony?
Made an agreement with a group of London merchants who obtained a patent for land from the Virginia Company. In exchange for funding to go to America, the Pilgrims promised to send back fish, furs, and lumber for 7 years.
Fundamental orders of Connecticut.
Created a General Assembly of representatives from each town. This came about because the founders lacked a charter from the king.
Passed by England! Law that required that goods brought to England or its colonies from Asia, Africa, or America be carried on English ships (including those English colonies). Goods from European nations had to be transported on either english ships or those of the country of origin. Confirmed the 1651 restrictions on transport and created a list of "enumerated articles"
What was the distinguishable characteristic of South Carolina?
The proprietors offered generous acreages to household heads for each person brought to the colony. A planter, with his own family and several enslaved blacks, could qualify for hundreds if acres. A large proportion of South Carolinians were african slaves. Colonists forms England and some planters from the isnland of Barbados, founded a town named for their king. Souther economy based on trading furs and providing food for west indies.
Permitted adults who had been baptized but who were not yet saved to be "half way" members. In 1662, the clergy devised this as an alternative to full church membership.People could use this as partial status by showing they understood christian principles and would strive to obey God.
By the latter half of the 1660s, New England orthodoxy had entered a period of decline. What showed that Puritanism was not working?
Growth of competing religions.Quakers and Baptists threatened religious unity.
Metacom and what his war resulted in.
King Philips. Algonquians destroyed 12 towns and killed many colonist. For the Indians of southern new england, the war was calamitous. Thousands dies and many others were enslved. ***ALL NATIVE AMERICANS in southern New ENgland had to live in praying towns, where they worked as servants or tenant farmers for neighboring whites. Metacom was killed.
Bacon challenged Berkeley for the leadership of the colony by mobilizing freemen and small planters against the Indians. Berkley declared Bacon a traitor and sent troops to end his forays against the Indians. Bacon burned Jamestown and rebellion ended with Bacon's death. This rebellion awakened the Virginian elites to the dangers of a large class of landless freemen, but resulted in no substantive political change.
Dominion of New England
Combined Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine under this. Added Plymouth, Rhode Island, and Connecticut in 1688. These two dominions would supersede colonial charters, eliminating the confusing diversity of laws and political structures. representative governments would end. For Massachusetts government, this was a disaster.
Results/ Effects of the Glorious Revolution. What happened in colonies?
Permanently limited the king's power by establishing parliamentary control of taxation, supremacy of law, and autonomy of the courts. Revolutions in Massachusets, New ,York and Maryland occurred in the wake of Jamesll loss of power. "A crusade to destroy the "papist" threat." BIll of rights and toleration acts.
Salem Witch trials. What were they a reaction of?
1691-1692 at first resembled hose in other places and times. several girls experimented with magic, aided by a slave woman. According to report the girls began "getting into holes, and creeping under chairs and stools, and to use sundry odd postures and antic gestures, uttering foolish ridiculous speech. possession spread to other village girls and, leading to the arrest of 3 women as witches. these women went beyond the accpeted bounds of female behvir and as a result became vulnerable to prosecution as witches.
Who explored the Mississippi river and gave Louisiana its name?
Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
Why did the english adopt entrenchment. Culturally/ economically how England looked at blacks
Europeans believed that hierarchies existed in human society and nature. The people of sub-saharan Africa were lower on the scale of humanity and could justifiably be enslaved. Economically needed them as an alternative labor supply. Needed them to work the lands.
Voyage across the Atlantic that could take from three weeks to more than 3 months depending on weather and destination. Weather permitting, the captives spend their days on deck, the men in chains, the women and children unrestrained. Disease was rampant, some slaves attempted suicide by jumping overboard or refusing to eat.
Colonial assemplies instituted to define slavery and to control black population. Slavery lasted a person's lifetime, descended from mother to child, and was the normal status of blacks, but never whites. These banned interracial marriage, forbade owners from releasing their slaves except in special cases, and restricted enslaved blacks from traveling without permission, marrying legally, holding property, testifying against whites, or congregating in groups.
How did blacks show resistance to slavery?
staging slwdowns, pretending illness, destroying crops and tools, committing theft, arson, assault, murder, and running away.
Early abolitionists, what religious group are they from? skills were they doing?
Quakers. Questioned entrenchment's morality. Spoke out publicly against the institution. Protested.