Physio Chapter 1 Flashcards

127 terms by benglassman

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renal physiology

physiology that concerns kidney function and urine production

neurophysiology

physiology that explains the workings of the nervous system

cardiovascular physiology

examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels

principle of complementarity of structure and function

what a structure does depends on its form

chemical level

simplest level of structural hierarchy in humans. Atoms form molecules, which form organelles, which form cells.

cellular level

Cells are the smallest units of living things. All cells have some common functions, but individual cells vary widely in size and shape, reflecting their unique functions in the body.

tissue level

tissues are groups of cells that have a common function. The tissue level is there in organisms that are more complex, such as humans.

organ level

at the organ level, extremely complex functions become possible.

organ system

organs work together to accomplish a common purpose.

organismal level

represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to promote life

maintaining boundaries

organisms do this to keep the internal environment distinct from the external environment

responsiveness(irritability)

the ability to sense changes in the

excretion

the process of removing wastes from the body

reproduction

can occur at the cellular or organismal level. In cells, the cell divides and creates a daughter cell. In humans, the sperm and egg unite to form a zygote

growth

the increase of the size of a body part or the organism

nutrients

contain the chemical substances used for energy and cell building

oxygen

all nutrients in the world are useless without oxygen

water

accounts for 60-80% of body weight and is the single most abundant chemical source in the body

normal body temperature

98.6 degrees F in humans. If the temperature drops too drastically cold or hot, the organism will die.

Atmospheric pressure

the force that air exerts on the surface of the body

homeostasis

process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment even though the outside world is changing constantly.

variable

the factor or event being regulated

receptor

some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes(Stimuli)

control center

determines the set point(the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained), analyzes the input it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action.

effector

provides the means for the control center's response(output) to the stimulus.

negative feedback mechanisms

the output shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity

positive feedback mechanisms

the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the activity(output) is accelerated

homeostatic imbalance

a condition where homeostasis is disturbed, often resulting in disease

anatomical position

standard body position where the body is erect with the feet slightly apart. Also called the anatomical reference point.

directional terms

allow us to explain where one body part is in relation to another

axial part

makes up the main axis of our body. It includes the head, neck, and trunk.

appendicular part

consists of the appendages, or limbs, which are attached to the axis

sagittal plane

vertical line that divides the body into right and left parts

median plane(midsagittal plane)

a sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline

parasagittal plane

sagittal plane offset from the midline

frontal planes(coronal plane)

divide the body into anterior and posterior parts.

transverse(horizontal) plane

runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts

cross section

another term for the transverse plane

oblique sections

cuts made diagonally between the horizontal planes and the vertical planes.

dorsal body cavity

protects the fragile nervous system organs, and it has two subdivisions

cranial cavity

part of the skull that encases the brain

vertebral/spinal cavity

runs within the bony vertebral column. it encloses the delicate spinal cord.

ventral body cavity

as two major subdivisions(thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity). it houses organs collectively called the viscera.

viscera

collective group of visceral organs

thoraric cavity

surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest. divided into pleural cavities and medial mediastinum

pleural cavities

division of the thoraric cavity. each pleural cavity envelops a lung.

medial mediastinum

contains the pericardial cavity

pericardial cavity

encloses the heart, and surrounds the remaining thoraric organs (esophagus, trachea, and others)

abdominopelvic cavity

division of the thoraric cavity. It contains the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity.

abdominal cavity

superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity that contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs.

pelvic cavity

inferior part of the abdominopelvic cavity that lies in the bony pelvis and contains the bladder, rectum, and some reproductive organs.

serosa/serous membrane

thin, double-layered membrane of the ventral body cavity

parietal serosa

part of the serosa/serous membrane that lines the cavity walls

visceral serosa

the parietal serosa folds itself into this, covering the organs in the cavity

serious fluid

thin layer of lubricating fluid that separates the serous membranes. This fluid fills the cavity between the membranes.

umbilical region

centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus(navel)

epigastric region

located superior to the umbilical region(epi=above, gastri=belly)

hypogastric(pubic) region

located inferior to the pubic region(hypo=below)

right and left iliac/inguinal regions

located lateral to the hypogastric region(iliac=superior part of the hip bone)

right and left lumbar regions

lie lateral to the umbilical regions(lumbus=loin)

right and left hypochondriac regions

flank the epigastric region laterally(chondro=cartilage)

oral and digestive cavities

mouth. it contains the teeth and tongue. it is part of and continuous with the cavity of digestive organs, which opens up to the anus.

nasal cavity

located within the posterior to the nose, the nasal cavity is part of the respiratory system passageways.

orbital cavities

in the skull. house the eyes and present them in an exterior position

middle ear cavities

carved into the skull and lie just medial to the eardrums. they contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears.

synovial cavities

joint cavities. they are enclosed with fibrous capsules that surround freely moveable joints of the body.

superior(cranial)

toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above

inferior(caudal)

away from the head end or lower part of a structure or the body; below

ventral(anterior)

toward or at the front of the body; in front of

dorsal(posterior)

toward or at the back of the body; behind

medial

toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of

lateral

away from the midline of the body; at the outer side of

intermediate

between a more medial and a more lateral structure

proximal

closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

distal

farther away from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

superficial(external)

toward or at the body surface

deep(internal)

away from the body surface; internal

nasal cavity

nose

oral cavity

mouth

cervical

neck

acromial

point of shoulder

axillary

armpit

abdomainal cavity

cavity inside the abdomen

brachial

arm(upper)

antecubital

front of elbow

antebrachial

forearm

pelvic

pelvis

pollex

thumb

carpal

wrist

palmar

palm

digital

fingers/toes

pubic

genital region

patellar

anterior knee

crural

leg

pedal

foot

tarsal

ankle

frontal

forehead

orbital cavity

cavity that houses the eye sockets

mental

chin

buccal

cheek

sternal

breastbone

thoraric cavity

cavity within the chest

mammary

breast

umbilical

navel

inguinal

groin

femoral

thigh

fibular, or peroneal

side of leg

hallux

great toe

cephalic

head

upper extremity

upper half of the body, which consists of the arms, chest, and abdominal region

manus

hand

lower extremity

lower half of the body, consisting of the legs, glutes, and feet

occipital

back of the head or base of skull

vertebral cavity

houses the delicate spinal cord

scapular

shoulder blade

dorsum/dorsal

back

olecranal

back of elbow

lumbar

loin

sacral

between hips

gluteal

buttock

perineal

region between the anus and the external genitalia

popliteal

back of knee

sural

calf

calcaneal

heel

plantar

sole

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