physiology that concerns kidney function and urine production
physiology that explains the workings of the nervous system
examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
principle of complementarity of structure and function
what a structure does depends on its form
simplest level of structural hierarchy in humans. Atoms form molecules, which form organelles, which form cells.
Cells are the smallest units of living things. All cells have some common functions, but individual cells vary widely in size and shape, reflecting their unique functions in the body.
tissues are groups of cells that have a common function. The tissue level is there in organisms that are more complex, such as humans.
at the organ level, extremely complex functions become possible.
organs work together to accomplish a common purpose.
represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to promote life
organisms do this to keep the internal environment distinct from the external environment
the ability to sense changes in the
the process of removing wastes from the body
can occur at the cellular or organismal level. In cells, the cell divides and creates a daughter cell. In humans, the sperm and egg unite to form a zygote
the increase of the size of a body part or the organism
contain the chemical substances used for energy and cell building
all nutrients in the world are useless without oxygen
accounts for 60-80% of body weight and is the single most abundant chemical source in the body
normal body temperature
98.6 degrees F in humans. If the temperature drops too drastically cold or hot, the organism will die.
the force that air exerts on the surface of the body
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment even though the outside world is changing constantly.
the factor or event being regulated
some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes(Stimuli)
determines the set point(the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained), analyzes the input it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action.
provides the means for the control center's response(output) to the stimulus.
negative feedback mechanisms
the output shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity
positive feedback mechanisms
the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the activity(output) is accelerated
a condition where homeostasis is disturbed, often resulting in disease
standard body position where the body is erect with the feet slightly apart. Also called the anatomical reference point.
allow us to explain where one body part is in relation to another
makes up the main axis of our body. It includes the head, neck, and trunk.
consists of the appendages, or limbs, which are attached to the axis
vertical line that divides the body into right and left parts
median plane(midsagittal plane)
a sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
sagittal plane offset from the midline
frontal planes(coronal plane)
divide the body into anterior and posterior parts.
runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
another term for the transverse plane
cuts made diagonally between the horizontal planes and the vertical planes.
dorsal body cavity
protects the fragile nervous system organs, and it has two subdivisions
part of the skull that encases the brain
runs within the bony vertebral column. it encloses the delicate spinal cord.
ventral body cavity
as two major subdivisions(thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity). it houses organs collectively called the viscera.
collective group of visceral organs
surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest. divided into pleural cavities and medial mediastinum
division of the thoraric cavity. each pleural cavity envelops a lung.
contains the pericardial cavity
encloses the heart, and surrounds the remaining thoraric organs (esophagus, trachea, and others)
division of the thoraric cavity. It contains the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity.
superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity that contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs.
inferior part of the abdominopelvic cavity that lies in the bony pelvis and contains the bladder, rectum, and some reproductive organs.
thin, double-layered membrane of the ventral body cavity
part of the serosa/serous membrane that lines the cavity walls
the parietal serosa folds itself into this, covering the organs in the cavity
thin layer of lubricating fluid that separates the serous membranes. This fluid fills the cavity between the membranes.
centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus(navel)
located superior to the umbilical region(epi=above, gastri=belly)
located inferior to the pubic region(hypo=below)
right and left iliac/inguinal regions
located lateral to the hypogastric region(iliac=superior part of the hip bone)
right and left lumbar regions
lie lateral to the umbilical regions(lumbus=loin)
right and left hypochondriac regions
flank the epigastric region laterally(chondro=cartilage)
oral and digestive cavities
mouth. it contains the teeth and tongue. it is part of and continuous with the cavity of digestive organs, which opens up to the anus.
located within the posterior to the nose, the nasal cavity is part of the respiratory system passageways.
in the skull. house the eyes and present them in an exterior position
middle ear cavities
carved into the skull and lie just medial to the eardrums. they contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears.
joint cavities. they are enclosed with fibrous capsules that surround freely moveable joints of the body.
toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
away from the head end or lower part of a structure or the body; below
toward or at the front of the body; in front of
toward or at the back of the body; behind
toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
away from the midline of the body; at the outer side of
between a more medial and a more lateral structure
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
farther away from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
toward or at the body surface
away from the body surface; internal
point of shoulder
cavity inside the abdomen
front of elbow
cavity that houses the eye sockets
cavity within the chest
fibular, or peroneal
side of leg
upper half of the body, which consists of the arms, chest, and abdominal region
lower half of the body, consisting of the legs, glutes, and feet
back of the head or base of skull
houses the delicate spinal cord
back of elbow
region between the anus and the external genitalia
back of knee