Chapter 18 Vocabulary words

Created by The_Sweetgeek 

Upgrade to
remove ads

For the students in Mr. B's Biology 210, Fall Semester.

Mineralocorticoid

Steroid hormone (e.g., Aldosterone) produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex; facilitates exchange of potassium for sodium in the distal renal tubule, causing sodium reabsorption and potassium and hydrogen ion secretion.

Pancreatic islet

Islets of Langerhans; cellular mass varying from a few to hundreds of cells lying in the interstitial tissue of the pancreas; composed of different cell types that make up the pancreas and are the source of insulin and glucagon.

Pituitary Gland

Endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum. also called the pituitary gland. See hypophysis.

Androstenedione

Androgenic steroid of weaker potency than testosterone; secreted by the testis, ovary, and adrenal cortex.

Prolactin-Inhibiting hormone

Neurohormone released from the hypothalamus that inhibits prolactin release from the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary).

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary; increases melanin production by melanocytes, making the skin darker in color.

Prostaglandin

Class of physiologically active substances present in many tissues; among effects are those of vasodilation, stimulation and contraction of uterine smooth muscle, and promotion of inflammation and pain.

Thromboxane

Specific class of physiologically active fatty acid derivatives present in many tissues.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Glycoprotein hormone released from the hypothalamus; stimulates thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland.

Triiodothyronine

One of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones.

Vasopressin

Hormone secreted from the neurohypophysis that causes vasoconstriction and acts on the kidney to reduce urinary volume; also called antidiuretic hormone.

Zona Fasciculata

Middle layer of the adrenal cortex that secretes cortisol.

Leukotriene

Specific class of physiologically active fatty acid dereivatives present in many tissues.

Pancreas

Abdominal gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the intestine and insulin and glucagon from the pancreatic islets into the bloodstream.

Melatonin

Hormone (amino acid derivative) secreted by the pineal body; inhibits secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus.

Gluconeogenesis

Formation of glucose from noncarbohydrates such as proteins (amino acids) or lipids (glycerol).

Parafollocular cell

Endocrine cell scattered throughout the thyroid gland; secretes the hormone calcitonin.

Anterior pituitary

Portion of the hypophysis derived from the oral ectoderm. See adenohypophysis.

Prolactin-releasing hormone

Neurohormone released from the hypothalamus that stimulates prolactin release from the adenohypophysis.

Growth Hormone

Somatotropin; stimulates general growth of the individual; stimulates cellular amino acid uptake and protein synthesis.

Thymus gland

Bilobed lymph organ located in the inferior neck and superior mediatinum; secretes the hormoe thyosin.

lipotropin

One of the peptide hormones released from the adenohypophysis; increases lipolysis in fat cells.

Adenohypophysis

Portion of the hypophysis derived from the oral ectoderm; commonly called the anterior pituitary.

Gonad

Organ that produces sex cells; testis of a male or ovary of a female.

Adenocorticotropic hormone

Hormone of the adenohypophysis that governs the nutrition and growth of the adrenal cortex, stimulates it to functional activity, and causes it to secrete cortisol.

Parathyroid hormone

Peptide hormone produced by the parathyroid gland; increases bone breakdown and blood calcium levels.

Tetraiodothyronine

One of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones; also called throxine or T4.

Isthmus

Constriction connecting two larger parts of an organ, such as the constriction between the body and the cervix of the uterus, or the portion of the uterine tube between the ampulla and the uterus.

Thyroid Gland

Endocrine gland located inferior to the larynx and consisting of two lobes connected by the isthmus; secretes the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and Tetraiodothyronine (T4).

Parathyroid gland

One of four glandular masses imbedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland; secretes parathyroid hormone.

Thyroxine

One of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones. See tetraiodothyronine.

Zona Glomerulosa

Outer layer of the adrenal cortex that secretes aldosterone.

Zona reticularis

Inner layer of the adrenal cortex that secretes androgens and estrogens.

Hypophysis

Endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum. also called the pituitary gland. See Pituitary Gland.

Thyrotropin

See thyroid-stimulating hormone.

Somatomedin

Peptide synthesized in the liver capable lof stimulating certain anabolic processes in bone and cartilage such as synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein.

somatotropin

Protein hormone of the anterior pituitary gland; it promotes body growth, fat mobilization, and inhibition of glucose utilization.

Cortisol

Steroid hormone released by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex; increases blood glucose and inhibits inflammation.

Enkephalin

Pntapeptide found in the brain; binds to specific receptor sites, some of ehich may be pain-related opiate receptors.

Hypothalamohypophyseal portal system

Series of blood vessels that carry bloos from the area of the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland; originate from capillary beds in the hypothalamus and terminate as a capillary bed in the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH

See follicle-stimulating hormone.

Luteinizing Hormone-releasing hormone

See Gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Hormone of the adenohypophysis that, in females, stimulates the graafian flooicles of the ovary and assists in follocular maturation and the secretion of estrogen; in males, FSH stimulates the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules and is partially responsible for inducing spermatogenesis.

Osmoreceptor cell

Receptor in the entral nervous system that responds to chandes in the osmotic pressure of the blood.

Adrenal gland

Also called the suprarenal gland. Located near the superior pole of each kidney, it is composed of a cortex and a medulla. The adrenal medulla is a highly modified sympathetic ganglion that secretes the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine; the cortex secretes aldosterone and cortisol as its major secretory products.

Aldosterone

Steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex that facilitates potassium exchange for sodium in the distal renal tubule, causing sodium reabsorption and potasium and hydrogen secretion.

Glucocorticoid

Steroid hormonw (e.g., cortisol) released by zonula fasciculata of the adrenal cortex; increases blood glucose and inhibits inflammation.

Antidiuretic hormone

Hormone secreted from the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) that acts to reduces the output of urine; also called vasopressin because ir causes vasoconstriction.

Gonadotropin

Hormone capable of promoting gonadal growth and function. Two major gonadotropins are luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follocle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Corticotropin releasing hormone

Hormone from the hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Hypothalamic-releasing hormone that stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) from the adenohypophysis.

Hypothalamohypophyseal tract

Nerve tract, consisting of the axons of neurosecretory cells, extending from the hypothalamus into the posterior pituitary gland. Hormones produced in the neurosecretory cell bodies in the hypothalamus are transported through the hypothalamohypophyseal tract to the posterior pituitary gland where they are stored for later release.

Luteinizing hormone

In females, hormones stimulating the final maturation of the follicles and the secretion of progesterone by them, with their rupture releasing the ovum, and the conversion of the ruptured follicle into the corpus luteum; in males, stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the testes.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set