Steroid hormone (e.g., Aldosterone) produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex; facilitates exchange of potassium for sodium in the distal renal tubule, causing sodium reabsorption and potassium and hydrogen ion secretion.
Islets of Langerhans; cellular mass varying from a few to hundreds of cells lying in the interstitial tissue of the pancreas; composed of different cell types that make up the pancreas and are the source of insulin and glucagon.
Endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum. also called the pituitary gland. See hypophysis.
Androgenic steroid of weaker potency than testosterone; secreted by the testis, ovary, and adrenal cortex.
Neurohormone released from the hypothalamus that inhibits prolactin release from the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary).
Peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary; increases melanin production by melanocytes, making the skin darker in color.
Class of physiologically active substances present in many tissues; among effects are those of vasodilation, stimulation and contraction of uterine smooth muscle, and promotion of inflammation and pain.
Specific class of physiologically active fatty acid derivatives present in many tissues.
Glycoprotein hormone released from the hypothalamus; stimulates thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland.
One of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones.
Hormone secreted from the neurohypophysis that causes vasoconstriction and acts on the kidney to reduce urinary volume; also called antidiuretic hormone.
Middle layer of the adrenal cortex that secretes cortisol.
Specific class of physiologically active fatty acid dereivatives present in many tissues.
Abdominal gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the intestine and insulin and glucagon from the pancreatic islets into the bloodstream.
Hormone (amino acid derivative) secreted by the pineal body; inhibits secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus.
Formation of glucose from noncarbohydrates such as proteins (amino acids) or lipids (glycerol).
Endocrine cell scattered throughout the thyroid gland; secretes the hormone calcitonin.
Portion of the hypophysis derived from the oral ectoderm. See adenohypophysis.
Neurohormone released from the hypothalamus that stimulates prolactin release from the adenohypophysis.
Somatotropin; stimulates general growth of the individual; stimulates cellular amino acid uptake and protein synthesis.
Bilobed lymph organ located in the inferior neck and superior mediatinum; secretes the hormoe thyosin.
One of the peptide hormones released from the adenohypophysis; increases lipolysis in fat cells.
Portion of the hypophysis derived from the oral ectoderm; commonly called the anterior pituitary.
Organ that produces sex cells; testis of a male or ovary of a female.
Hormone of the adenohypophysis that governs the nutrition and growth of the adrenal cortex, stimulates it to functional activity, and causes it to secrete cortisol.
Peptide hormone produced by the parathyroid gland; increases bone breakdown and blood calcium levels.
One of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones; also called throxine or T4.
Constriction connecting two larger parts of an organ, such as the constriction between the body and the cervix of the uterus, or the portion of the uterine tube between the ampulla and the uterus.
Endocrine gland located inferior to the larynx and consisting of two lobes connected by the isthmus; secretes the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and Tetraiodothyronine (T4).
One of four glandular masses imbedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland; secretes parathyroid hormone.
One of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones. See tetraiodothyronine.
Outer layer of the adrenal cortex that secretes aldosterone.
Inner layer of the adrenal cortex that secretes androgens and estrogens.
Endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum. also called the pituitary gland. See Pituitary Gland.
See thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Peptide synthesized in the liver capable lof stimulating certain anabolic processes in bone and cartilage such as synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein.
Protein hormone of the anterior pituitary gland; it promotes body growth, fat mobilization, and inhibition of glucose utilization.
Steroid hormone released by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex; increases blood glucose and inhibits inflammation.
Pntapeptide found in the brain; binds to specific receptor sites, some of ehich may be pain-related opiate receptors.
Hypothalamohypophyseal portal system
Series of blood vessels that carry bloos from the area of the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland; originate from capillary beds in the hypothalamus and terminate as a capillary bed in the anterior pituitary gland.
See follicle-stimulating hormone.
Luteinizing Hormone-releasing hormone
See Gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
Hormone of the adenohypophysis that, in females, stimulates the graafian flooicles of the ovary and assists in follocular maturation and the secretion of estrogen; in males, FSH stimulates the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules and is partially responsible for inducing spermatogenesis.
Receptor in the entral nervous system that responds to chandes in the osmotic pressure of the blood.
Also called the suprarenal gland. Located near the superior pole of each kidney, it is composed of a cortex and a medulla. The adrenal medulla is a highly modified sympathetic ganglion that secretes the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine; the cortex secretes aldosterone and cortisol as its major secretory products.
Steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex that facilitates potassium exchange for sodium in the distal renal tubule, causing sodium reabsorption and potasium and hydrogen secretion.
Steroid hormonw (e.g., cortisol) released by zonula fasciculata of the adrenal cortex; increases blood glucose and inhibits inflammation.
Hormone secreted from the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) that acts to reduces the output of urine; also called vasopressin because ir causes vasoconstriction.
Hormone capable of promoting gonadal growth and function. Two major gonadotropins are luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follocle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
Corticotropin releasing hormone
Hormone from the hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Hypothalamic-releasing hormone that stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) from the adenohypophysis.
Nerve tract, consisting of the axons of neurosecretory cells, extending from the hypothalamus into the posterior pituitary gland. Hormones produced in the neurosecretory cell bodies in the hypothalamus are transported through the hypothalamohypophyseal tract to the posterior pituitary gland where they are stored for later release.
In females, hormones stimulating the final maturation of the follicles and the secretion of progesterone by them, with their rupture releasing the ovum, and the conversion of the ruptured follicle into the corpus luteum; in males, stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the testes.