Radiology Physics Chapter 3 & 4

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atom

greek - substances - earth, air, fire, water
- essences - wet, dry, hot, cold

bonding

...

isobar

...

isotope

...

isomere

...

human body is composed of what 4 elements

...

ionizing radiation

...

period

...

who invented the periodic table

mendeleev

einstein's equation of relativity

...

atomic mass unit

one atomic mass unity is equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom

atomic mass

...

atomic mass number

...

carbon-12

...

alpha particles

...

beta particles

...

radioisotopes

...

amn of a proton

...

amn of a neutron

...

amn of an electron

...

what is amu based on

c12

atom after emissions (alpha and beta)

...

what is half life

...

principle quantum number

2n^2

outer shell max

8

does radiation ever reach zero

no

nuclear stability

...

xrays vs gamma rays

...

centripital force

...

symbol for atomic number

...

bohr

1913, improved rutherfords description of the atom, a miniature solar system in which the electrons revolved about the nucleus in prescribed orbits or energy levels.

einstein

...

thompson

late 1890's he described the atom as looking something like a plum pudding, where the plums represented negative electric charges (electrons) and the pudding was a shapeless mass of uniform positive electrification.

rutherford

1911 - disproved thomson's model of the atom, introduced the nuclear model, which described the atom as containing a small, dense, positively charged center surrounded by a negative cloud of electrons. he called the center of the atom the nucleus

dalton

1808 - school teacher - elements could be classified according to integral values of atomic mass
an element was composed of identical atoms that reacted the same way, chemically

smallest atom

...

wavelength of red

...

wavelength of violet

...

rf measured in

...

xrays measured in

...

visible light measured in

...

amplitute

...

mendeleev

showed elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, a periodic repetition of similar chemical properties occurred

what are the fundamental particles of an atom

electron, proton, neutron

what is an atom?

the smallest particle that has all the properties of an element

essentially empty space

what is the mass of a proton? neutron? electron?

proton - 1.673 x 10^-27 kg
neutron 1.675 x 10^-27 kg (slightly heavier)
electron 9.1 x 10^-31 kg

in their normal state, what is the charge of an atom

neutral

what is ionization

the removal of an orbital electron from an atom

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