Any system- human, animal, or machine- that encodes, stores and retreives information.
A cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded, stored, and retreived.
One of the three basic tasks of memory, involving the modification of information to fire the preferred format for the memory system.
One of the three basic takss of memeory, involving the retention of encoded material over time.
The thrid basic memory, involving the location and recovery of information from memory.
An especially clar and persistent form of memory that is wute rare; sometimes kown as "photographic" memory.
the first of the three memory stages, preserving brief sensory impression of stimuli.
The second of the three memory stages, and the most limited in capacity. It preserves recently perceived event or experiences for less than a minute without rehearsal.
Long-term memory (LTM)
The third of three memory stages, with the largest capacity and longest duration; LTM stores material organized according to meaning.
Organizing pieces of information into a smaller number of meaningful units (or chunks) - a process that frees up space in working memory.
A working-memory process in which information is merely repeated or reviewed to keep it form fading while in working memory.
A working-memory process in which information is actively reviewed and related to information already in LTM.
The conversion of information, especially semantic information already in LTM.
The explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long-term memory (more "deeply" processed) will be remembered better.
A division of LTM that stored memories for how things are done.
A division of LTM that stores explicit information; also known as fact memory.
A subdivision of declarative memory that stored memory for personal events, or "episodes."
A subdivision of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, including the meanings of words and concepts.
The physical changes in the brain associated with memory. It is also known as the memory trace.
The inability to form memories for new information (as opposed to retrograde amnesia, which involves the inability to remember information previously stored in memory.
The process by which short-term memories are changed to long-term memories over a period of time.
The inability to remember information previously stored in memory
A clear and vivid long-term memory of an especially meaningful and emotional event.
A memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awareness.
Memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled
Stimuli that are used to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior.
A technique for cuing implicit memories by providing cues that stimulate a memory without awareness of the connection between the cue and the retrieved memory.
A retrieval method in which one must reproduce previously presented information
A retrieval method in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented.
Encoding specificity principle
The doctrine that memory is encoded and stored with specific cues related to the context in which it was formed.
A memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match one's mood.
The inability to recall a word, while knowing that is it in memory. People often describe this frustrating experience as having the work "on the tip of their tongue"
The impermanence of a long-term memory.
A graph plotting the amount of retention and forgetting over time of a certain batch of material, such as a list of nonsense syllables.
Forgetting caused by lapses in attention
Forgetting that occurs when an item in memory cannot be accessed or retrieved.
A cause of forgetting by which previously stored information prevents learning and remembering new information.
A cause of forgetting by which newly learned information prevents retrieval of previously stored materials.
Serial position effect
A form of interference related to the sequence in which information is presented.
A memory fault that occur when memories are retrieved but are associated with the wrong time, place or persons.
The process of memory distortion as the result of the deliberate or inadvertent suggestion.
The distortion of memory by suggestion or misinformation
In memory, a tendency to recalled events to make them fit one's expectations.
The commonly held idea that we are more consistent in our attitudes, opinions, and beliefs than we actually are.
A memory problem in which unwanted memories cannot be put out of mind.
Techniques for improving memory, especially by making connections between new material and information already in long-term memory.
Methods of loci
A mnemonic technique that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar physical locations
Natural language mediators
Words associated with new information to be remembered.
Language acquisition device of LAD
A biologically organized mental structure in the brain that facilitates the learning of language because it is innately programmed with some of the fundamental rules of grammar.
The rules of a language, specifying how to use words, morphemes, and syntax to produce understandable sentences.
The meaningful units of language hat make up words. Some whole words are morphemes; other morphemes include grammatical components that alter a word's meaning.
Applying a grammatical rule too widely and thereby creating incorrect forms.
The idea that the brain is an information-processing organ that operates, in some ways, like a computer.
Mental representations of categories of items or ides, based on experience.
Mental representations of objects and events drawn form our direct experience.
An ideal or most representative example of a conceptual category.
Concepts defined by rules, such as word definition and mathematical formulas.
Levels of concepts, from most general to mot specific in which a more general level includes more specific concepts.
Brain waves shown in the EEG isn't response to stimulation
A knowledge cluster or general conceptual framework that provides expectations about topics, event, objects, people, and situations in one's life.
A cluster of knowledge about sequences of events and actions expected to occur in particular settings.
Problem-solving procedures or formulas that guarantee a correct outcome, if correctly applied.
Cognitive strategies or "rules of thumb" used as shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks.
The tendency to respond to a new problem in the manner used for a previous problem.
The inability to perceive a new use for an object associated with a different purpose; a form of mental art.
The tendency, alter learning about and event, to "second guess" or believe that one could have predicted the event in advance.
A faulty heuristic caused by basing (anchoring) an estimate on a completely unrelated quantity.
Faulty heuristic strategy based on the presumption that once or people or events are categorized, they share all the features of other members in that category.
A faulty heuristic strategy that estimates probabilities based on information that can be recalled form personal experience.
A mental process that produces novel responses that contributes to the solutions of problems.
Innate potentialities (as contrasted with abilities acquires by learning)
The mnemonic strategy of first approaching the material to be learned "as a whole," forming an impression of the overall meaning of the material. The details are later associated with this overall impression.
A technique whereby the learner spaces learning sessions over time, rather than trying to learn the material all in one study period.
A strategy whereby the learner continues to study and rehearse the material after it has been initially brought to mastery.