A religious sect started in Zurich, Switzerland, in the 16th century that believed that true faith was based on reason and free will and that people must knowingly select the Christian faith through rebaptism as adults. These men and women rejected the authority of the state and the courts, abolished private property, and believed themselvesto be true Christians who lived acording to the standards established in the Bible. The movement gained most of its support from artisans and the middle and lower classes, who were attracted by its simple message of peace and salvation.
These were the early followers of Martin Luther. they were called this because of their reliance on the Gospel as the only source of religious truth.
Name given to all of those who rejected the Catholic Church during the Reformation after German princes lodged a formal complaint against the Catholic Church when Martin Luther was declared an outlaw.
A release from all or part of punishment for sin by the Catholic Church, reducing time in Purgatory after death.
Intellectuals in the late 15th and early 16th centuries who dreamed of idealistic societies based on peace, morality, and Christian virtue and sought to realize the ethical ideals of the classical world and the Scriptures. Their ideals applied the techniques and outlook of Renaissance humanism to Christianity and the Bible. they strongly encourages reform through education. They influenced Martin Luther and other Reformation leaders.
1466-1536 b. Rotterdam, Holland. Leading humanist of the Northern Renaissance. Two most famous works were Praise of Folly & Handbook of the Christian Knight. Satire on church & how to lead a moral but active life. Studied classical language to get deeper understanding of Bible. Published annotated edition of New Testament in Greek. Saw religion and learning as bound together. While a critic of abuses by church - was NOT a Protestant. Thought institution could reform itself from within and wished for a unified Church.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which the problems of society were caused by greed. Executed by Henry VIII for not compromising his religious beliefs.
The Praise of Folly
Erasmus' most famous book.. It ridiculed ignorance, superstition, and vice among christians and advocated modesty, virtue, and poverty as Christian virtues.
Meaning "no place" this term was coined by St. Thoms More who, in his book by that name, describes a religious society, heavily influenced by divine revelation, in which goods were held in common and their was no crime nor war. The book was written as a critique of England.
German monk and professorwho started the Protestant Reformation by nailing the 95 These to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg, Germany. His ideas of salvation by faith alone, the Bible is the sole source of religious freedom, and that the clergy has no special relationship with God are the basis of the Protestant faith.
This Dominican monk was chosen to advertise indulgences in 1517, and did so using extreme methods so that many people bought them. This caught Luther's attention, and was a factor that led to the 95 Theses.
Formal statements written by Martin Luther attacking the "pardon-merchants" who sold indulgences. In 1517 Luther posted these statements on the door of a castle church in Wittenberg and invited other scholars to debate them. This began the Reformation.
Of the Habsburg dynasty, Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and outlawed Luther. He later fought wars against the Valois dynasty of France, the Ottoman Turks, and Protestant princes of Germany.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Edict of Worms
When Charles V exiled or outlawed Luther from The Holy Roman Empire or any of it's other lands.
Frederick the Wise
The duke of Saxony and also one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. He chose to protect Luther at the Diet of Worms (some say to assert his political independence from Charles V and the HRE).
Pope Leo X
This man began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. He tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the Church and condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so.
(1484-1531) Influenced by the writings of Erasmus, he called for religious reform in Switzerland. Although he agreed with several of Luther's ideas, he differed in others (symbolism of Eucharist) and was independent of him. He died in a battle between Catholics and Protestants
Colloquy of Marbury
A meeting of leading German Protestant reformers in 1529. These leaders tried to reconcile differences among their goups. They were successful in some areas, but could not resolve Luther's and Zwingli's ideas on Eucharist.
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva, which he turned into a theocracy. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion. Strongly believed in predestination (separated him from Luther).
Affair of the Placards
A Protestant protest against the Cathoilc Church in 1534. Obnoxious posters denouncing the Cathoilic Church were posted around Paris. This led to persecution of Protestants and John Calvin/s immigration to Switzerland.
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin's publication that was the cornerstone of his theology; provided the belief in the absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the total weakness of humanity. Introduced the idea of predestination.
The doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved or damned.
This was the man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops. He was heavily influenced by John Calvin.
A general rebellion of peasants in Germany (1524- 26). They were inspired by Luther's idea of freedom of the Christian and wanted to apply it to their position in society. Catholic and Protestant princes united to crush the peasants. Luther did not agree with the peasants. 100,000+ peasants were killed.
A radical German (Thuringian) Protestant who was a rebel leader during the Peasants' War of 1524-26. Luther despised Muntzer for his politicization of the Reformation, and they disagreed over several religious doctrines.
Pacifist leader of the Anabaptists who continued the movement in northwestern Europe, followers known as Mennonites
Latin translation of the Bible that became the standard used by the Catholic Church
Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples
Translated French Bible from Vulgate
Early reformer who created an English translation of the Bible in Europe and smuggled it to England. Burned at the stake. His version of the Bible would be adopted after the English Reformation.
A definite community of Catholics within a diocese, established by the bishop and entrusted to the care of a pastor.
Society of Jesus
A Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation as they launched missions and built schools around the world. They helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Secondary schools in Reformation Europe.
Wife of a prominent reformer, she advocated for equality among women in the Protestant Church. She fed the peasants after the defeat in war and wrote a book of hymns. She is an example of how women were able to assume greater roles in the early Protestant churches (although they were limited later).
Katharina von Bora
Former nun and wife of Martin Luther. She represented the ideal Protestant woman in that she accepted her role of running the home. She argued that women were uqual partners in a marriage.
Spanish physician. He hained notoriety for his publications denying the Christian dogma of the Trinity. He was executed in Geneva on Calvin's orders.
King of France. Part of the valois Dynasty. Died in 1547. Built a huge court that was the largest in Europe. He was the arch- rival of Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
French palace built by King Francis I.
This man was an author in the court of Este in Ferrara, Italy. His ideas were indicative of what court life aspired to be. His book Orlando Furioso (written like a classical epic), he depicted court life as the highest synthesis of classical and Christian values.
Diplomat who lived from 1478-1529 and published the famous Renaissance book, "The Courtier". It described the quintessential Renaissance man who was well versed in liberal arts and social graces, unlike the unrefined Middle Ages knight, although the renaissance man should be well versed in war. It said that women should be educated, but said they should also be beautiful.
Emperor Maximilian I
ruled the holy roman empire from 1493-1519. married mary of Burgundy.controlled netherlands. loved battle, but was a terrible general.
Greatest Renaissance painter in Venice, used vivid color and movement, which was the opposite of the subtle colors and static figures in Florentine paintings. Court painter of Charles V.
Long standing ruling family of Spain and Austria. They also dominated the Netherlands, Hungary, and parts of Italy. They were Holy Roman Emperors as well.
Non- believers. A term used by bother Christians and Muslims.
1494- 1559. Wars fought between Valois and Habsburg Dynasties for control of Italy. Many other monarchs involved. Eventually the Habsburgs won. Italian ideas spread to the North during this time. Spain replaces Italy as power center of Europe.
Ruling family of France during the Reformation.
Treaty of Cateau- Cambresis
Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars giving Spain dominance over France in Italy. 1559.
Suleiman the Magnificent
Known to his subjects as "the Lawgiver". He commanded the greatest Ottoman assault against European enemies. He conquered Belgrade in 1521, expelled the Knights of the Hospital of St. John from the island of Rhodes, and then laid siege to Vienna in 1529.
The wealthiest banker in Europe. Became powerful by being the sole banker of the Habsburgs (given mining monopolies).
French Protestants influenced by John Calvin
(ruled 1556-59) As king of France, he succeeded his father, Francis I, and began a religious repression that created Calvinist martyrs, perhaps further encouraging Protestant dissent. The spread of Calvinism led him to sign the Treaty of Canteau-Cambresis in 1559. After decades of reckless invasions, he agreed to respect Hapsburg dominance in Italy and control over Flanders. In 1559, he was accidentally killed by an errant lance during a jousting tournament celebrating peace with Spain, and so his son, Francis II, succeeded him.
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Catherine of Aragon
First wife of Henry VIII. Mother of Mary I. Henry's wish to annul his marriage with her (due to her failure to produce a male heir) led eventually to England's break with the Roman Catholic Church. Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella and aunt of Charles V.
Henry VIII mistress during the time of the English Reformation, she gave birth to Elizabeth, future queen of England. One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her. Executed for treason when Henry tired of her.
Pope who refused to dissolve Henry's marriage. Made his decision in part because troops had captured and sacked Rome in 1527.
(1485-1540) Became King Henry VIII's close advisor following Cardinal Wolsey's dismissal. He and his contemporary Thomas Cranmer convinced the king to break from Rome and made the Church of England increasingly more Protestant.
The first archbishop of the Anglican church; annulled Henry's marriage to Catherine after convincing Henry to break from the Church.
Act of Supremacy
English Parliamentary law that declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. During her reign, England became the leader of the Protestant nations of Europe.
She was the devout Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Henry VIII. She served as queen after the brief reign of Edward VI. She turned England back to Catholicism, by persecuting and executing hundreds of English Protestants.
Mary of Guise
Queen regent of Scotland. French native who surrounded herself with French Catholic advisors. Mother of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Known as Queen of Scots. Queen of Scotland from 1542 to 1567, as a Catholic she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son and fled to England where she was imprisoned by Elizabeth I; when Catholic supporters plotted to put her on the English throne she was tried and executed
Son of Mary, Queen of Scots. Placed on throne after Scottish Parliament forced Mary out. Inherited the English throne from Elizabeth and started having struggles with Parliament over position of power
Protestant alliance lead by Philip of Hess and elector of Saxony against the Diet of Augsburg and Charles V.
Philip of Hesse
A leading champion of the Reformation and formed the Schmalkaldic League.
Imperial Diet at Regensburg
Meeting of Schmalkaldic League and Catholic theologians in a failed attempt to reconcile Lutherans and Protestants.
An agreement established by Charles V after his initial defeat of the Schmalkaldic League in which he established the right for Catholics to worship in Lutheran lands, while recognizing Lutheran rites, as well.
Duke Maurice of Saxony
Former ally of Charles V who turned against him after Charles V initially defeated the Schmalkaldic League and assumed more political power.
Peace of Augsburg
(1555) A treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany. It also established the right for each German prince to decide the religion (Catholicism or Lutheran) for his kingdom.
Council of Trent
(1545- 1563) An intermittent meeting of Catholic Church leaders summoned by Pope Paul III to try and define Catholic doctrine and thwart Protestant attacks on Catholic beliefs. These meetings did not reform the doctrines but did end several currupt practices criticized by Reformers within the Church and reasserted traditional Catholic doctrine.
Gian Matteo Giberti
Pope Paul III
He promised to summon a council for reform if he was elected pope after the death of Pope Clement VII. Roman aristocrat, humanist, and astrologer, Pope Paul III formed the Council of Trent during the Catholic counter-reformation and the Inquisition in Papal Italy, and recognized the Society of Jesus. Noted for ending plurism, secret marriages, and attacking corruption.
Ignatius of Loyola
A Spanish noble and soldier who turned to religious study and founded the Society of Jesus after he was injured during battle.
Bartolome de Las Casas
A Spanish missionary who reported the abuses of and strongly discouraged enslaving Native Americans for the workforce, and recomended using African slaves instead. By the end of his lifetime he realized that that didn't make a difference, they were being treated the same.
Early Jesuit missionary often called the Apostle to the Indies. He was an associate of St Ignatius of Loyola, with whom he took the vow founding the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). From 1541 he traveled through India, Japan, and the East Indies, making many converts.
Son of an African king who studied to be a priest in Portugal. He moved back to Africa to convert Africans and work against the slave trade.
The selling of church offices.
The holding of several benefices, or church offices.
an official not participation in benefices but receiving payment and privileges. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
The practice of appointing family members to positions of favor. The practice was very common in the Catholic Church of the Middle Ages / Renaissance.
Book written by Loyola. This was a training manual for spiritual development and strengthened people to follow the will of God. Stressed religious discipline, meditation, prayer.
A theologian and defender of Catholicism. He argued that the ideas of Luther and Jan Hus were similar. He debated with Luther in 1519 in Leipzig. Luther was moved to deny the authority of the pope, making the break b/w Protestants and Catholics complete.