Endocrine System

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62 terms · Test on Chap 17-18

Secreted by cells in a local area

Autocrine

Produced by a wide variety of tissues and secreted into extracellular fluid; has a localized effect of other tissues

Paracrine

Produced by neurons; secreted into a synaptic cleft

Neurotransmitters

Secreted into the blood by specialized cells; results in coordinated regulation of cell function

Endocrine

Hormones travel through the ______

Bloodstream

Nervous System secretes ______

Neurotransmitters

Amount of time it takes for half of the circulating hormone to be removed from circulation and excreted

Half-Life

_____-Soluble hormones include steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and fatty acid derivative hormones

Lipid

Lipid Soluble hormones travel in the bloodstream bound to ______

Binding Proteins

_____- Soluble hormones include protein hormones, peptide hormones, and most amino acid derivative hormones

Water

What type of hormone circulates as a "free hormone" b/c it can dissolve directly into the blood and are delivered to their target tissue w/o binding proteins

Water-Soluble

Pattern of hormone secretion that remain relatively constant over long periods of time

Chronic Hormone Secretion

Pattern of hormone secretion that is released in response to stress; ex: epinephrine

Acute Hormone Secretion

Pattern of hormone secretion which fluctuate over a month in cyclic fashion; ex: female reproductive hormones

Episodic Hormone Secretion

Stimulation of hormone release when the blood level of the particular molecule changes, the hormone is released in response to the molecule's concentration

Humoral Stimuli

Stimulation of hormone release where following action potentials, neurons release a neurotransmitter into the synapse w/ the cells that produce the hormone

Neural Stimuli

Stimulation of hormone release when a hormone is secreted that, in turn, stimulates the secretion of other hormones; example of negative feedback

Hormonal Stimuli

Type of feedback where the hormone's secretion is inhibited by the hormone itself once blood levels have reached a certain point and there is adequate hormone to activate the target cell

Negative Feedback

Type of feedback when a tropic hormone promotes the synthesis and secretion of the tropic hormone in addition to stimulating their target cell

Positive Feedback

Occurs when the number of receptors rapidly decreases after exposure to certain hormones; ex: phagocytosis

Down-Regulation

Results in an increase in the rate of receptor molecule synthesis in the target cells; ex: LH in ovary cells during each menstrual cycle

Up-Regulation

Nuclear receptors can be found in the _____ and also in the _____

Cell nucleus and cytoplasm

Lipid-Soluble hormones diffuse through the _________

Plasma Membrane

Lipid-Soluble hormones bind to _______

Nuclear Receptors

Water-Soluble hormones bind to _______

Membrane-Bound Receptors

Chemical produced inside a cell once a hormone or another chemical messenger binds to certain membrane-bound receptors

Intracellular Mediators

Intracellular mediator in Kidney Cells

cGMP

Intracellular mediator in Liver Cells

cAMP

Intracellular mediators in Smooth Muscle Cells

IP3, DAG

Secretes 9 major hormones that regulate numerous body functions and the secretory activity of several other endocrine glands; aka hypophysis

Pituitary Gland

Regulates the secretory activity of the pituitary gland

Hypothalamus

Small peptide that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland

Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; GHRH

Small peptide that inhibits growth hormone secretion

Growth Hormone-Inhibiting Hormone; GHIH

Small peptide that stimulates the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary gland

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; TRH

Small peptide that stimulates luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; GnRH

Regulate the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland

Prolactin-Releasing Hormone & Prolactin-Inhibiting Hormone; PRH & PIH

Prevents the output of large amounts of urine

Antidiuretic Hormone; ADH

The _____ of a solution increases as the concentration of solutes in the solutes increases

Osmolality

ADH stimulates the kidney tubules to retain _____

Water

This hormone plays an important role in milk production

Prolactin

This hormone stimulates the synthesis and the secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone; TSH

Most T4 cells are converted into ____ cells

T3

T3 and T4 transport

Transported through the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm of the cells. Within the cells they bind to receptor molecules in the nuclei. Thyroid hormones combined with their receptor molecules interact w/ DNA in the nucleus to influence regulatory genes and regulate protein synthesis

Hormone that regulates calcium levels in body fluids, stimulates osteoclast activity in bone and can cause the number of osteoclasts to increase

Parathyroid Hormone; PTH

Abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood

Hypocalcemia

Adrenal Medulla secretes two major hormones, _____ & _____

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Epinephrine increases ____ ____ levels

Blood Glucose

Secretion of adrenal medullary hormones prepares the individual for physical activity and is a major component of the _____ __ _____ response

Fight-or-Flight

Glucocorticoids are involved in __-_____ responses

Anti-Inflammatory

Adrenal androgens stimulate the pubic and axillary hair growth and _____ _____ in females

Sex Drive

The pancreas is both and ____ gland and ____ gland

Endocrine and Exocrine

Pancreatic Islets secrete hormones that enter the ______ system

Circulatory

Alpha Cells secrete _____

Glucagon

Beta Cells secrete _____

Insulin

Delta Cells secrete _____

Somatostatin

Low blood glucose levels _____ glucagon secretion

Stimulate

High blood glucose levels _____ glucagon secretion

Inhibit

This hormones aids in spermatogenesis, development of genitalia, and sexual behavior

Testosterone

Main hormones secreted by the ovaries

Estrogen and Progesterone

Pineal Gland secretes

Melatonin

Autocrine Chemical messengers are

Released from cells that influence the same cell from which they were released

Paracrine Chemical messengers deal a lot w/

Inflammation

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