5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Johannes Kepler
- Cartesian dualism
- Committee of Public Safety
- Second Coalition
- a Essentially the ruling body of the Convention (#134), the Committee (established April 1793) was headed first by Danton (#142) and later Robespierre (#144). It continued war with the First Coalition (#131) successfully and initiated the Reign of Terror (#154) until its replacement by the Directory (#161).
- b Comprised of Russia, the Ottomans, Austria, and Britain, these were parties that fought against first the Directory (#161) and later the Consulate (#172); after initial successes in 1799 under the old Russian general Suvorov, they were defeated in 1800 by Napoleon's (#170) victory at Marengo and that of Moreau at Hohenlinden. They fought from 1798 to 1801, and the war was ended by the Treaty of Luneville.
- c Descartes' (#18) idea that the mind was not a physical substance, and can exist apart from the body. This leads to the problem of "how does the mind affect the body?", which was explained variously by his disciples as either "through the intervention of God" or "through the soul" - the latter having to work through the pineal gland.
- d German astronomer and mystic, and protégé of Brahe (#13), Kepler developed the Laws of Planetary Motion (#1). Discovered that planets orbit the sun in ellipses.
- e A direct tax on the non-nobles in ancien regime France (#80), the taille was based on the amount of land a household held and was widely hated by the reign of Louis XVI (#99)
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- The second-to-last Bourbon King, Louis (1754 - 93, r. 1774 - 91) was married to Marie Antoinette of Austria (#100) and forced intervention in the war of American Revolution. To pay his bills, he tried to call the Estates General (#107) to give him cash; just like Charles I, they said no and deprived him of all real power; two years later, he was executed via the guillotine.
- A journalist and scientist, as well as an associate Jacobin (#124), Marat (1743-93) helped launch the Reign of Terror (#154) and complied death lists, being an advocate of violent measures. He was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday, immortalized in the David (#91) painting The Death of Marat.
- The leading Jacobin (#124) and head of the CPS (#151), Robespierre (1758-94) initiated the Reign of Terror (#154), but after Danton's (#142) execution, he was in turn guillotined (#140) during the Thermidorian Reaction (#160).
- Originally a group of Breton delegates to the Estates General of 1789 it soon developed into a group of radical left-wing politicians, led by Robespierre and even spread to other professions; it grew so large that there were several different factions of it, including the Montagnards (#145) and Girondins (#141). After the end of the Committee's Reign of Terror it was closed.
- King of France and Navarre from 1814 to 1824, he was the restored Bourbon King who initially tried to reverse the effects of the Revolution, and was unseated in the Hundred Days (#198). Later, he would prove a fairly moderate King until the 1820s, during which he would turn ultraconservative.
5 True/False Questions
Principia Mathematica → Newton's major book (his magnum opus), it described his Laws of Motion (#14) and the theory of universal gravitation.
Continental System → Napoleon's (#170) attempt at making economic war on Britain, it was supposed to be, in effect, an embargo of Britain by Europe, as he could not win naval victory outright. Many of his wars following 1807 were fought to enforce the System.
"popular" culture → During July and early August of 1789, much of the French countryside revolted, with peasants storming noble chateaux in order to burn the feudal documents therein. It was in response to perceived noble armies massing to destroy the peasant harvest.
rococo → A style of art emerging in France in the early 18th century (as a continuation of Baroque), rococo was typified by a carefree, graceful, opulent, easy lightness in architecture that swung away from the dark baroque style of previous and the neoclassical (#88) iconic heroism to mainly just be the rich kids having fun.
Immanuel Kant → German astronomer and mystic, and protégé of Brahe (#13), Kepler developed the Laws of Planetary Motion (#1). Discovered that planets orbit the sun in ellipses.