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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Louis XVIII
  2. Baron de Montesquieu
  3. Jean Jacques Rousseau
  4. Olympe de Gouges
  5. Age of Enlightenment
  1. a King of France and Navarre from 1814 to 1824, he was the restored Bourbon King who initially tried to reverse the effects of the Revolution, and was unseated in the Hundred Days (#198). Later, he would prove a fairly moderate King until the 1820s, during which he would turn ultraconservative.
  2. b A French playwright and feminist during the late 18th century, de Gouges (1748-93) wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman (#123) in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man (#115), challenging the notion of male-female inequality. She was guillotined (#140) due to her anti-Committee (#151) activities.
  3. c A French political thinker and social commentator, Montesquieu (1689 - 1755) articulated the theory of separation of powers in his works The Spirit of the Laws (#59) and Persian Letters. He is also famous for popularizing the term "Byzantine Empire" for the Eastern Roman Empire, and also for calling feudalism such.
  4. d Covering all of the 18th century in European philosophy, the Age of Enlightenment was marked by the application of Reason to all things, emboldened by Newton's (#10) new physics. The leaders of the Enlightenment considered themselves an intellectual elite, which would bring light to the world. It was a major factor in the American and French Revolutions, and ended with the accession of Napoleon as First Consul.
  5. e A Genevan Enlightenment (#50) philosopher, Rousseau (1712 - 78) was a political theorist who influenced virtually every important cultural and social development of his time: the French Revolution, the development of nationalism and romanticism. He came up with the idea of a general will of the people, the underlying social current to which one must submit to be free, which he postulated in The Social Contract (#70).

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. A group of French philosophers in the 18th century, they supported deism, toleration, and the abolition of slavery. Often, they criticized the government through satire and other indirect ways.
  2. A direct tax on the non-nobles in ancien regime France (#80), the taille was based on the amount of land a household held and was widely hated by the reign of Louis XVI (#99)
  3. The Revolutionary government from 1795 to 1799, it had five directors sharing power instead of a legislative body. It was more conservative than those previous due to the Thermidorian Reaction (#160); it was propped up mainly on the bayonets of Napoleon (#170) and the Army.
  4. A style of art emerging in France in the early 18th century (as a continuation of Baroque), rococo was typified by a carefree, graceful, opulent, easy lightness in architecture that swung away from the dark baroque style of previous and the neoclassical (#88) iconic heroism to mainly just be the rich kids having fun.
  5. German astronomer and mystic, and protégé of Brahe (#13), Kepler developed the Laws of Planetary Motion (#1). Discovered that planets orbit the sun in ellipses.

5 True/False questions

  1. CandideOften referring to the purely French concept, salons were Enlightenment-era (and earlier and later as well, but mainly in reference to the Enlightenment (#50)) gatherings of "socially stimulating" people at the abode of a host or hostess. Generally, there would be much conversation in an effort to increase knowledge or amuse each other. Political and social issues of the day were discussed here; the opinions of the upper classes could be gauged by visiting a few salons and listening to the discussions.


  2. "Noble Savage"The idea, popularized in the 18th century, that the people who are not products of the so-called "civilized" world are in fact more perfect than their "civilized" counterparts. Rousseau wrote about it in Emile.


  3. David HumeHume (1711 - 76) was an important historian of Britain (he wrote a History of Great Britain that stayed the standard text until that of Macaulay later on); also a radical empiricist (#33) who was generally in philosophical opposition to Germany's Kant (#56). His philosophy, typified in his many, many essays, generally tended toward the skeptic (#42) and naturalist sides.


  4. Continental SystemNapoleon's (#170) attempt at making economic war on Britain, it was supposed to be, in effect, an embargo of Britain by Europe, as he could not win naval victory outright. Many of his wars following 1807 were fought to enforce the System.


  5. Joséphine de BeauharnaisNapoleon's (#170) first wife, Josephine (1763-1814) was extremely popular, but also had to put up with Napoleon's numerous dalliances. He divorced her in 1810 due to her inability to have children.


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