5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Fourth Coalition
- Jacques-René Hébert
- Louis XVIII
- a Comprised of Prussia, Russia, Britain, Saxony, and Sweden, they fought against Napoleon (#170) from 1806-7. The war featured several major victories for the French, who conquered almost all of Prussia and Poland; the war ended with the Treaties of Tilsit (#181).
- b Refers to a French aristocrat that fled France during the Revolution from 1789 onward, who viewed the Revolution as a temporary inconvenience and expected to return to France upon its end. They often led armies in the Vendee or to assist the Coalition armies elsewhere.
- c One of the most radically left-leaning of the Jacobins (#124), he proposed the Cult of Reason (#157) in opposition to Robespierre's (#144) Cult of the Supreme Being, and for his troubles was guillotined (#140) during the climax of the Terror (#154).
- d King of France and Navarre from 1814 to 1824, he was the restored Bourbon King who initially tried to reverse the effects of the Revolution, and was unseated in the Hundred Days (#198). Later, he would prove a fairly moderate King until the 1820s, during which he would turn ultraconservative.
- e The opposite (almost, anyway) of rationalism (#28), empiricism's proponents were mainly found in England during the Scientific Revolution. It emphasized experimentation as opposed to reason as the basis for Truth.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- Issued by Catherine II (#73) in 1785, it reaffirmed the various powers of the Russian nobility, including the ability to petition needs to authorities including the Senate and even the Tsarina herself.
- Finance minister to Louis XVI (#99), Necker is known for his daughter (the famous Madame de Staël) and for his economic reforms in France, which involved dividing up the taille (#103, which had much popularity since everyone hated the taille) and assumption of some debt. The King tried to use him to calm the rebels, but he treated the assembly poorly, only requesting loans instead of enacting reforms, and was dismissed.
- Formulated by Newton (#10), these state relationships between a body and the forces acting thereon. In quickie terms, from first to last: inertia, F = ma, and action-reaction.
- Covering all of the 18th century in European philosophy, the Age of Enlightenment was marked by the application of Reason to all things, emboldened by Newton's (#10) new physics. The leaders of the Enlightenment considered themselves an intellectual elite, which would bring light to the world. It was a major factor in the American and French Revolutions, and ended with the accession of Napoleon as First Consul.
- The French version of an Executive Order in the ancien regime, it was a letter signed and sealed (the French Seal was called the cachet) by the King to one of his nobles or servants, ordering that servant to perform some service or other action that could not be appealed. Through this method, the King could order a parlement to pass a law over its own objection, or break up an assembly.
5 True/False Questions
Committee of Public Safety → Essentially the ruling body of the Convention (#134), the Committee (established April 1793) was headed first by Danton (#142) and later Robespierre (#144). It continued war with the First Coalition (#131) successfully and initiated the Reign of Terror (#154) until its replacement by the Directory (#161).
The Battle of the Nile → Also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay and fought on the night of August 1-2, 1798, Nelson (#164) and the British fleet defeated the French fleet in Egypt, preventing Napoleon (#170) from further victory in the Middle East.
Law of Gravitation → Comprised of Russia, the Ottomans, Austria, and Britain, these were parties that fought against first the Directory (#161) and later the Consulate (#172); after initial successes in 1799 under the old Russian general Suvorov, they were defeated in 1800 by Napoleon's (#170) victory at Marengo and that of Moreau at Hohenlinden. They fought from 1798 to 1801, and the war was ended by the Treaty of Luneville.
Baron de Montesquieu → Issued in November 1806 following Napoleon's (#170) victory at Jena in the War of the Fourth Coalition (#189), it installed Napoleon's Continental System (#184).
pantheism → A version of Catholicism in parts of France from the 1500s to the 1700s, Jansenism placed its emphasis on original sin and the necessity of God's forgiveness. Jansenists also believed in predestination, as did Luther and Calvin. Pascal (#27) was probably one of the most famous Jansenists.