5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Louis XVIII
- William Harvey
- "Great Fear"
- Treaty of Campo Formio
- Marie Antoinette
- a Wife of Louis XVI (#99) and daughter of Maria Theresa, she was queen of France (1755 - 93; r. 1774 - 91) and had a very extravagant lifestyle (which was slightly exaggerated in the press), leading the People to hate her so much that she got executed via guillotine as well as her husband in the same year. Quotable Quote: "Qu'ils mangent de la brioche." (English: Let them eat cake; probably not actually uttered by Marie Antoinette, since her writings actually show an amount of sympathy towards the poor.)
- b During July and early August of 1789, much of the French countryside revolted, with peasants storming noble chateaux in order to burn the feudal documents therein. It was in response to perceived noble armies massing to destroy the peasant harvest.
- c Negotiated by Napoleon (#170) directly with Austria as a result of his victories in Italy of 1796-7 (Rivoli being the most recent), it ended the War of the First Coalition (#131) with only Britain left opposing France. Many Austrian territories were ceded to France or spun off as pro-Revolutionary governments, especially in Italy.
- d King of France and Navarre from 1814 to 1824, he was the restored Bourbon King who initially tried to reverse the effects of the Revolution, and was unseated in the Hundred Days (#198). Later, he would prove a fairly moderate King until the 1820s, during which he would turn ultraconservative.
- e An English anatomist (1578 - 1657) who was the first to accurately describe the human circulatory system in detail and have his ideas widely circulated (pun definitely intended). In his magnum opus On the Motion of the Heart and Blood (#36), he said that blood was pumped around the body by the heart and then went back to the heart in a closed circulatory system.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Written in 1792 following the "Battle" of Valmy, La Marseillaise is and was the national anthem of France. Napoleon (#170) banned it during the First Empire.
- The French civil code, established by Emperor Napoleon I (#170) in 1804, it was the first successful codification of law outside of the old Roman Empire. It notably prohibited ex post facto (or retroactive) laws and established the supremacy of the husband as compared to the wife (Note: only legally. Please don't hurt me.).
- Published by the Duke of Brunswick, commander of the Prussian and allied forces, in July 1792 in Coblenz, it stated the official aims of the First Coalition, including its goal of reinstating the absolute monarchy. It was intended to threaten the French public into submission; like most of those kinds of things, it had the opposite effect, and kicked off the War of the First Coalition (#131).
- The final location of Napoleon's (#170) exile following the Hundred Days (#198), it was where he finally died in 1821.
- Issued in November 1806 following Napoleon's (#170) victory at Jena in the War of the Fourth Coalition (#189), it installed Napoleon's Continental System (#184).
5 True/False questions
guillotine → A weapon used to execute by decapitation, it was the main instrument of the Reign of Terror (#154) and stayed the main instrument of execution in France until the 1970s.
Jacques Turgot → An economist and statesman from France, Turgot (1727 - 81) was an intendant who wrote on the idea of free trade, saying that it was entirely beneficial to the state and the economy in general.
Ancien Régime → The French governmental system under the Valois and Bourbon Kings, it was swept away by the Revolution in 1789. Key tenets include the Three Estates, parlements, and the Divine Right of Kings.
Cartesian dualism → A version of Catholicism in parts of France from the 1500s to the 1700s, Jansenism placed its emphasis on original sin and the necessity of God's forgiveness. Jansenists also believed in predestination, as did Luther and Calvin. Pascal (#27) was probably one of the most famous Jansenists.
Battle of Borodino → The bloodiest single-day battle of the Napoleonic Wars, it was fought on 7 September 1812 between the French and Russians in western Russia. Nearly 100,000 casualties were suffered in total during a French frontal attack against fortified infantry. After this battle, immortalized in War and Peace, Napoleon (#170) had little chance of conquering Russia.