5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Antoine Lavoisier
- Catherine the Great
- Lord Castlereagh
- a One of the few ruling Tsarinas of Russia, Ekaterina (1729 - 96, r. 1762 - 96) succeeded her husband, Peter III, after deciding he was too weak and having him confined to his estate. She was one of the most enlightened monarchs (#72) and participated in several Russo-Turkish wars and the partitions of Poland.
- b The British representative at the Congress of Vienna (#192), he represented the UK at the Congress and helped create the security system for Europe that would last until 1848.
- c A French nobleman chemist (1743 - 94), he was the other co-discoverer of oxygen, stated the law of conservation of mass, named hydrogen, and helped introduce the metric system. He served as a tax collector to fund his experiments; it was in this capacity that he was guillotined by the Revolutionaries.
- d Literally mountain in French, the montagnards were the most radically liberal of the Jacobin (#124) factions, and were generally supported by the sans culottes (#147). They eventually hijacked the Convention (#134) and were a major force behind the Reign of Terror (#154).
- e an astronomer and geographer (90 - 168) who not only provided a map of the world as the Romans knew it but also a compilation of all of the Hellenistic astronomical thought, which amounted to: the Earth is the center of the universe. All planets, moons, and stars orbit around the Earth in some way, or are embedded in the "firmament" at the edge of the Universe. To "fix" their orbits to look nice, they move in little tiny circles called epicycles. This was called the geocentric theory (#4).
5 Multiple choice questions
- Essentially the ruling body of the Convention (#134), the Committee (established April 1793) was headed first by Danton (#142) and later Robespierre (#144). It continued war with the First Coalition (#131) successfully and initiated the Reign of Terror (#154) until its replacement by the Directory (#161).
- An early synthesis of religious, metallurgical, and chemical understanding, it is often portrayed as an attempt to turn lead into gold.
- A French Jansenist (#34) scientist (1623 - 62), who clarified the concepts of vacuums and pressure by expanding on Torricelli's work, and also made Pascal's wager (as you will remember from Zero last year) in favor of the existence of God. He was one of the greatest mathematicians of his time (which was full of excellent math people) and developed probability theory and projective geometry with Fermat.
- The first concerted effort by European powers to bring down the Revolution in France, it was formed in 1793 by Austria, Prussia, the UK, Sardinia, Naples, Spain, and Portugal. The participants would continue to fight until 1797, when Bonaparte (#170) signed the Treaty of Campo Formio (#163).
- Danish astronomer (1546-1601) who came up with the fusion of geocentric and heliocentric views in his Tychonian System, wherein the Sun orbits the Earth, but everything else orbits the Sun. Important for more accurate charting of the night scky. His pupil was Kepler (#15)
5 True/False questions
Jacques Necker → Finance minister to Louis XVI (#99), Necker is known for his daughter (the famous Madame de Staël) and for his economic reforms in France, which involved dividing up the taille (#103, which had much popularity since everyone hated the taille) and assumption of some debt. The King tried to use him to calm the rebels, but he treated the assembly poorly, only requesting loans instead of enacting reforms, and was dismissed.
On the Motion of the Heart and Blood → Period during the Convention (#134) during which the Committee (#151) ruthlessly suppressed risings (real and perceived) against its power by judicious use of the guillotine (#140). It lasted from September 1793 to the Thermidorian Reaction (#160).
Jansenism → philosophical/scientific doctrine, with heavy basis in Cartesian thought (#18), which questions the reliability of claims by subjecting them to rigorous testing and investigation. In philosophy, it is the idea never to make a truth claim (including the claim that truth is impossible which is itself a truth claim!). Ambrose Bierce and Voltaire (#43) were notable skeptics.
"republic of letters" → A term referring to the huge amount of correspondence between the various Enlightenment (#50) writers. Now, it is often applied to the Internet.
Revolutionary Tribunal → A court instituted in Paris by the Convention (#134) between October 1793 and the Thermidorian Reaction (#160), the Tribunal was one of the main instruments of the Reign of Terror (#154) and had many people guillotined (#140).