5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Principia Mathematica
- Denis Diderot
- Battle of Trafalgar
- Maria Winkelmann
- a Newton's major book (his magnum opus), it described his Laws of Motion (#14) and the theory of universal gravitation.
- b Fought on 21 October 1805 as part of the War of the Third Coalition (#176), it saw an outnumbered British fleet under Nelson (#164) attack and defeat a combined Franco-Spanish fleet off the southern coast of Spain. The significance: Napoleon (#170) would never have the chance or the ability to invade England again, and was forced to turn to Continental victories.
- c Diderot (1713 - 84) was a prominent Enlightenment (#50) figure who edited the Encyclopédie (#65) and wrote several other minor philosophical tracts. Other works include Jacques the Fatalist and his Master and Regrets on Parting with my Old Dressing Gown.
- d An early German astronomer (1670 - 1720), she discovered the comet of 1702. Her application to get into the Berlin Observatory was rejected on the basis that she hadn't gone to university (and she was a woman, so how could she help that?).
- e Originally French for a legal demarcation of person, usually denoting a member of the middle class; in the 19th century, it was corrupted to mean the ruling class in a capitalist society. They supported the French and American revolutions.
5 Multiple choice questions
- laying the foundation for modern science. Also remembered as the source for cogito, ergo sum! (#22) Full title: Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason in the Search for Truth in the Sciences.
- Danish astronomer (1546-1601) who came up with the fusion of geocentric and heliocentric views in his Tychonian System, wherein the Sun orbits the Earth, but everything else orbits the Sun. Important for more accurate charting of the night scky. His pupil was Kepler (#15)
- Maria Theresa's son and successor on the Austrian and Imperial throne, Josef (1741 - 90, r. 1780 - 90) was one of the so-called "enlightened monarchs" (more pejoratively: enlightened despots). He traveled all over Europe, and initiated the partitions of Poland in a private meeting with Frederick. He issued the Edict of Tolerance (#48) and tried to initiate other reforms, but was foiled by Kaunitz and other Austrian nobles.
- A revolt against Robespierre (#144) and the Terror (#154), it was a conservative reaction that ended in the end of the Reign of Terror and established a new Convention (#134) government, which was far more right-wing than those previous. It was succeeded by the Directory (#161) in fall 1795.
- One of the Great Captains of History and leader of France from 1799 to 1814 (with 100 days in 1815), first as First Consul (#172), then as Emperor, Napoleon (1769-1821) fought the Napoleonic Wars (1800-15). He attempted to bring French rule to all of Europe but was frustrated by the various British-led coalitions against him.
5 True/False questions
The Spirit of the Laws → Enacted in fall 1793 by the Convention (#134), it allowed for the creation of Revolutionary Tribunals (#139) throughout France to eliminate Enemies of the Revolution. It initiated the Reign of Terror (#154).
Physiocrats → A group of 18th century economists who believed that the entire wealth of nations was derived from agriculture, it was the first really well-developed economic school of thought, and came directly before classical economics, the school of Adam Smith (who published his Wealth of Nations in 1776).
Battle of Leipzig → Also called the "Battle of the Nations", Leipzig (16-9 October 1813) was the most decisive defeat suffered by Napoleon (#170) during the Napoleonic Wars. Fought in Germany south of Berlin, it involved a Prussian, Austrian, Russian, and Swedish conglomerate army defeating a slightly smaller French and German allied Grande Armee.
"enlightened" absolutism → Also called "enlightened despotism", this political philosophy differed from normal absolutism only in the degree to which the individual sovereigns adopted various ideas of the Enlightenment (#50). Examples: Josef II (#49), who embraced the idea of the social contract (#70) and Enlightenment music; Ekaterina II (#73), who was a patron of music and the arts and who adopted some of Montesquieu's ideas; and (among many others) Friedrich II, who although permitting serfdom viewed himself as not the State but its First Servant.
Treaty of Campo Formio → Negotiated by Napoleon (#170) directly with Austria as a result of his victories in Italy of 1796-7 (Rivoli being the most recent), it ended the War of the First Coalition (#131) with only Britain left opposing France. Many Austrian territories were ceded to France or spun off as pro-Revolutionary governments, especially in Italy.