5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- The Spirit of the Laws
- Blaise Pascal
- The Battle of the Nile
- Hundred Days
- a Also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay and fought on the night of August 1-2, 1798, Nelson (#164) and the British fleet defeated the French fleet in Egypt, preventing Napoleon (#170) from further victory in the Middle East.
- b Time of Napoleon's (#170) return to France from Elba (#191) in summer 1815, it culminated in the Battle of Waterloo (#199), at which he would finally be defeated by the Seventh Coalition.
- c Mainly used to refer to the subset of truth relativism, relativism is the idea that no truths are absolute. The RCC especially and many religions in general oppose this idea.
- d Published in 1748 and written by Montesquieu (#58), De l'esprit des lois is famous for its suggestion that a government be separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judiciary. This had a profound effect on Catherine II (#73) and the framers of the American Constitution.
- e A French Jansenist (#34) scientist (1623 - 62), who clarified the concepts of vacuums and pressure by expanding on Torricelli's work, and also made Pascal's wager (as you will remember from Zero last year) in favor of the existence of God. He was one of the greatest mathematicians of his time (which was full of excellent math people) and developed probability theory and projective geometry with Fermat.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Developer of a ranked election system (the Condorcet Method), the Marquis of Condorcet (1743 - 94) was a political thinker far ahead of his time (even if that time was the Enlightenment (#50)), who advocated a political system including equal rights for women and all races, a liberal economic system, free and equal public education, and a constitution. Known for his unyielding faith in the progress of society.
- A Polish monk, astronomer, and polymath (Renaissance man) (1473 - 1543) who provided the first modern formulation of a heliocentric universal theory. This marked the starting point of modern astronomy.
- Descartes' (#18) idea that the mind was not a physical substance, and can exist apart from the body. This leads to the problem of "how does the mind affect the body?", which was explained variously by his disciples as either "through the intervention of God" or "through the soul" - the latter having to work through the pineal gland.
- Maria Theresa's son and successor on the Austrian and Imperial throne, Josef (1741 - 90, r. 1780 - 90) was one of the so-called "enlightened monarchs" (more pejoratively: enlightened despots). He traveled all over Europe, and initiated the partitions of Poland in a private meeting with Frederick. He issued the Edict of Tolerance (#48) and tried to initiate other reforms, but was foiled by Kaunitz and other Austrian nobles.
- Written by Wollstonecraft (#118) in response to Emile (#69) and Declaration of the Rights of Woman (#123), it advocated equality between men and woman and equal education for boys and girls. Many feminists of the time distanced themselves from this work due to the author's personal controversy.
5 True/False questions
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen → Covering all of the 18th century in European philosophy, the Age of Enlightenment was marked by the application of Reason to all things, emboldened by Newton's (#10) new physics. The leaders of the Enlightenment considered themselves an intellectual elite, which would bring light to the world. It was a major factor in the American and French Revolutions, and ended with the accession of Napoleon as First Consul.
Girondin → A faction of the Jacobins (#124) during the Legislative Assembly (#130) and the Convention (#134), they were supporters of a constitutional monarchy with a good deal of power for the republic. They lost much support after the flight of Louis XVI (#99) and the Royals from the Tuileries (#132), and were finally eradicated during the Terror (#154).
St. Helena → The final location of Napoleon's (#170) exile following the Hundred Days (#198), it was where he finally died in 1821.
Encyclopédie → A faction of the Jacobins (#124) during the Legislative Assembly (#130) and the Convention (#134), they were supporters of a constitutional monarchy with a good deal of power for the republic. They lost much support after the flight of Louis XVI (#99) and the Royals from the Tuileries (#132), and were finally eradicated during the Terror (#154).
Cesare Beccaria → Also known as Cartesius (1596 - 1650), he developed the Cartesian (or x-y) coordinate plane concept, wrote Discourse on Method (#20), and was the original rationalist thinker (regarded as the Father of Modern Philosophy by many). He helped merge algebra and geometry in the pre-Newtonian days, and also believed that there was no divine guiding will, leading the universe to an end. Quotable Quote: Cogito, ergo sum. (#22; French: Je pense, donc je suis; English: I think, therefore I am.)