5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Louis XVI
- Abbé Sieyès
- Cartesian dualism
- a An early synthesis of religious, metallurgical, and chemical understanding, it is often portrayed as an attempt to turn lead into gold.
- b A great French political theorist and statesman, Abbé Sieyès (1748 - 1836) wrote What is the Third Estate? in 1789, which really fired up the soon-to-be Revolutionaries. He also helped instigate the Coup of 18 Brumaire (#168).
- c The opposite (almost, anyway) of rationalism (#28), empiricism's proponents were mainly found in England during the Scientific Revolution. It emphasized experimentation as opposed to reason as the basis for Truth.
- d The second-to-last Bourbon King, Louis (1754 - 93, r. 1774 - 91) was married to Marie Antoinette of Austria (#100) and forced intervention in the war of American Revolution. To pay his bills, he tried to call the Estates General (#107) to give him cash; just like Charles I, they said no and deprived him of all real power; two years later, he was executed via the guillotine.
- e Descartes' (#18) idea that the mind was not a physical substance, and can exist apart from the body. This leads to the problem of "how does the mind affect the body?", which was explained variously by his disciples as either "through the intervention of God" or "through the soul" - the latter having to work through the pineal gland.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- During July and early August of 1789, much of the French countryside revolted, with peasants storming noble chateaux in order to burn the feudal documents therein. It was in response to perceived noble armies massing to destroy the peasant harvest.
- Occurring on 18 Brumaire VIII (9 November 1799), it was the overthrow of the Directory (#161) by Napoleon and the establishment of the Consulate (#172). It was heralded by the incident of 30 Prairial (18 June), when Abbe Sieyes (#108) ridded himself of the other four Directors.
- A religious philosophy prominent in England, France, and the U.S. in the 18th and 19th centuries, deism is the belief that supernatural events, revelations, and holy books are all false, and that God is revealed through reason and observation of the natural world. After creating the world God is a passive observer.
- skeptic (#42), Bayle wrote the Historical and Critical Dictionary. He was an outstanding critic, and began modern literary criticism.
- Written by Wollstonecraft (#118) in response to Emile (#69) and Declaration of the Rights of Woman (#123), it advocated equality between men and woman and equal education for boys and girls. Many feminists of the time distanced themselves from this work due to the author's personal controversy.
5 True/False Questions
Thomas Paine → An English pamphleteer and radical political thinker, Paine (1737 - 1809) helped foment the American Revolution through incendiary writing such as Common Sense, and outlined his egalitarian ideals in Rights of Man (in response to Burke's (#116) writings on the French Revolution). He was also a deist (#52), and supported those ideas in The Age of Reason.
Jansenism → A version of Catholicism in parts of France from the 1500s to the 1700s, Jansenism placed its emphasis on original sin and the necessity of God's forgiveness. Jansenists also believed in predestination, as did Luther and Calvin. Pascal (#27) was probably one of the most famous Jansenists.
The Spirit of the Laws → Also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay and fought on the night of August 1-2, 1798, Nelson (#164) and the British fleet defeated the French fleet in Egypt, preventing Napoleon (#170) from further victory in the Middle East.
David Hume → Hume (1711 - 76) was an important historian of Britain (he wrote a History of Great Britain that stayed the standard text until that of Macaulay later on); also a radical empiricist (#33) who was generally in philosophical opposition to Germany's Kant (#56). His philosophy, typified in his many, many essays, generally tended toward the skeptic (#42) and naturalist sides.
non-juring [refractory] clergy → Term used for the bishops and clergy who didn't accept the Civil Constitution (#127), they were mostly in western France and helped incite the uprisings in the Vendee (#148) against the various Revolutionary governments.