5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Thomas Paine
- Jacques-Louis David
- Francisco Goya
- Louis XVI
- a A Spanish painter and printmaker, Goya (1746-1828) worked for the Spanish Crown, and was a member of the Romanticist movement. He painted Third of May, 1808 in commemoration of the massacres of the Spanish people during the French occupation of Iberia.
- b My personal favorite painter and bridge between neoclassicist (#88) and romantic schools, David (1748 - 1824) was first the artistic chronicler of the Revolution (with paintings such as Death of Marat and Marie Antoinette on her Way to the Guillotine), then a neoclassicist icon (Leonidas at Thermopylae, Belisarius, Oath of the Horatii, The Intervention of the Sabine Women), and finally the Romantic court painter for Napoleon (Napoleon Crossing the Alps, Coronation of Napoleon, Napoleon in his Study). His paintings are probably the easiest to recognize among the whole pantheon of art in the post-Renaissance era.
- c An island off the northern coast of Italy, close to Corsica. Napoleon (#170) was exiled here in 1814 following defeats at Leipzig (#190) and the fall of Paris, but returned to Europe in the Hundred Days (#198).
- d The second-to-last Bourbon King, Louis (1754 - 93, r. 1774 - 91) was married to Marie Antoinette of Austria (#100) and forced intervention in the war of American Revolution. To pay his bills, he tried to call the Estates General (#107) to give him cash; just like Charles I, they said no and deprived him of all real power; two years later, he was executed via the guillotine.
- e An English pamphleteer and radical political thinker, Paine (1737 - 1809) helped foment the American Revolution through incendiary writing such as Common Sense, and outlined his egalitarian ideals in Rights of Man (in response to Burke's (#116) writings on the French Revolution). He was also a deist (#52), and supported those ideas in The Age of Reason.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Discovered by Napoleon's (#170) troops in Egypt, the Stone had the same text in Greek, Egyptian, and another Egyptian script, allowing Egyptian hieroglyphics to finally be decoded.
- Often referring to the purely French concept, salons were Enlightenment-era (and earlier and later as well, but mainly in reference to the Enlightenment (#50)) gatherings of "socially stimulating" people at the abode of a host or hostess. Generally, there would be much conversation in an effort to increase knowledge or amuse each other. Political and social issues of the day were discussed here; the opinions of the upper classes could be gauged by visiting a few salons and listening to the discussions.
- Newton's major book (his magnum opus), it described his Laws of Motion (#14) and the theory of universal gravitation.
- Also formulated by Newton (#10) and published in Principia Mathematica (#12), it states that every single point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass along a line drawn between the two, the force of which is proportional to the two masses.
- The last great Enlightenment (#50) philosopher, Kant (1724 - 1804) defined the Enlightenment as an era with the slogan Sapere aude (English: Dare to Know). He wrote Critique of Pure Reason, in which he bridged the gap between empiricism (#33) and rationalism (#28) and tried to counter David Hume's (#57) radical empiricist philosophy. In Critique of Pure Reason Kant tried to answer the questions "What do we know?" and "How come?", and came up with a synthesis of the two leading philosophical doctrines.
5 True/False questions
Legislative Assembly → Governing body of France during the summer of 1789, it was initially comprised of those members of the Estates General (#107) that took the Tennis Court Oath (#111). They later reformed as the Constituent Assembly (#120).
English Royal Society → Official title: Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge. Founded in 1660, it relied on experimentation rather than authority for proof and decision, with emphasis on replication of experiments.
Battle of Borodino → Also called the "Battle of the Nations", Leipzig (16-9 October 1813) was the most decisive defeat suffered by Napoleon (#170) during the Napoleonic Wars. Fought in Germany south of Berlin, it involved a Prussian, Austrian, Russian, and Swedish conglomerate army defeating a slightly smaller French and German allied Grande Armee.
Candide → The best-known work of Voltaire (#43), subtitled Optimism, it followed the trials and travels of Candide, a naïve optimist, who swings towards pessimism and finally to a more middle ground by the end of the book. It is one of the first satirical novels, and showcases (under pseudonyms, naturally) many of the injustices and horrors of the 18th century, including the Seven Years' War, the Inquisition, the Lisbon earthquakes, piracy, trouble in the New World, etc.
Ptolemy → an astronomer and geographer (90 - 168) who not only provided a map of the world as the Romans knew it but also a compilation of all of the Hellenistic astronomical thought, which amounted to: the Earth is the center of the universe. All planets, moons, and stars orbit around the Earth in some way, or are embedded in the "firmament" at the edge of the Universe. To "fix" their orbits to look nice, they move in little tiny circles called epicycles. This was called the geocentric theory (#4).