5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Antoine Lavoisier
- René Descartes
- Baron de Montesquieu
- a Mainly used to refer to the subset of truth relativism, relativism is the idea that no truths are absolute. The RCC especially and many religions in general oppose this idea.
- b Also known as Cartesius (1596 - 1650), he developed the Cartesian (or x-y) coordinate plane concept, wrote Discourse on Method (#20), and was the original rationalist thinker (regarded as the Father of Modern Philosophy by many). He helped merge algebra and geometry in the pre-Newtonian days, and also believed that there was no divine guiding will, leading the universe to an end. Quotable Quote: Cogito, ergo sum. (#22; French: Je pense, donc je suis; English: I think, therefore I am.)
- c A French political thinker and social commentator, Montesquieu (1689 - 1755) articulated the theory of separation of powers in his works The Spirit of the Laws (#59) and Persian Letters. He is also famous for popularizing the term "Byzantine Empire" for the Eastern Roman Empire, and also for calling feudalism such.
- d A French nobleman chemist (1743 - 94), he was the other co-discoverer of oxygen, stated the law of conservation of mass, named hydrogen, and helped introduce the metric system. He served as a tax collector to fund his experiments; it was in this capacity that he was guillotined by the Revolutionaries.
- e A weapon used to execute by decapitation, it was the main instrument of the Reign of Terror (#154) and stayed the main instrument of execution in France until the 1970s.
5 Multiple choice questions
- A Revolutionary agitator and journalist, Babeuf (1760-97) had ideas that can be best described as "socialist" or "communist". He was executed by the Directory (#161) for his role in the Conspiracy of the Equals.
- Created by the Treaty of Pressburg that ended the War of the Third Coalition (#176), it was a large grouping of 16 German states under a French puppet ruler. It helped lay the groundwork for greater German unity later on, and also destroyed the last vestiges of the Holy Roman Empire.
- 1778), was a famous French skeptic (#42), satirist, and political thinker, and author of Candide (#44). He was known for his friendship with Frederick the Great, support of civil liberties, sharp wit, and many attacks on Church dogma.
- Taken on 20 June 1789 by the National Assembly, it was in response to the King's Guards' blocking of the Third Estate from the Estates General (#107). They pledged to not separate until the security of the French government was guaranteed.
- the idea that the Earth is at the center of the Universe (and more specifically, me on the Earth) and everything else orbits around it. Propagated by Hellenes and Ptolemy. Debunked by Copernicus (#8) and Galileo (#3) in the late 1500s and early 1600s, it was generally accepted as false by the end of the 17th century.
5 True/False questions
Olympe de Gouges → A French playwright and feminist during the late 18th century, de Gouges (1748-93) wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman (#123) in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man (#115), challenging the notion of male-female inequality. She was guillotined (#140) due to her anti-Committee (#151) activities.
Francisco Goya → The French governmental system under the Valois and Bourbon Kings, it was swept away by the Revolution in 1789. Key tenets include the Three Estates, parlements, and the Divine Right of Kings.
Paris Commune → The government of Paris from 1789 to 1795, it was established not long after the storming of the Bastille (#112). In 1792 it turned insurrectionary against the Legislative Assembly (#130) and attacked the Tuileries (#132), where the Royal Family was staying, and forced them to flee to the Assembly.
Physiocrats → Another word for referendum, a plebiscite is an example of direct democracy: an issue on which everyone votes.
Laws of Planetary Motion → Also formulated by Newton (#10) and published in Principia Mathematica (#12), it states that every single point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass along a line drawn between the two, the force of which is proportional to the two masses.