5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Joseph II [Austria]
- Treaty of Campo Formio
- Pugachev Rebellion
- Battle of Austerlitz
- a Fought on 2 December 1805 as part of the War of the Third Coalition (#176), here Napoleon (#170) won a massive tactical and strategic victory against superior Russo-Austrian forces in Bohemia, virtually annihilating the Russian and Austrian armies still remaining. It is considered his greatest tactical masterpiece and is called the "Battle of the Three Emperors" because Alexander I (#195) of Russia and Franz II of Austria were also there.
- b Maria Theresa's son and successor on the Austrian and Imperial throne, Josef (1741 - 90, r. 1780 - 90) was one of the so-called "enlightened monarchs" (more pejoratively: enlightened despots). He traveled all over Europe, and initiated the partitions of Poland in a private meeting with Frederick. He issued the Edict of Tolerance (#48) and tried to initiate other reforms, but was foiled by Kaunitz and other Austrian nobles.
- c Negotiated by Napoleon (#170) directly with Austria as a result of his victories in Italy of 1796-7 (Rivoli being the most recent), it ended the War of the First Coalition (#131) with only Britain left opposing France. Many Austrian territories were ceded to France or spun off as pro-Revolutionary governments, especially in Italy.
- d A style of art emerging in France in the early 18th century (as a continuation of Baroque), rococo was typified by a carefree, graceful, opulent, easy lightness in architecture that swung away from the dark baroque style of previous and the neoclassical (#88) iconic heroism to mainly just be the rich kids having fun.
- e A Cossack insurrection led by Yemelyan Pugachev, a pretender to the Russian throne, it was the largest peasant rebellion in Russian history and was directed primarily against the rule of Ekaterina II (#73). It was started in 1773 and enjoyed some success (including the capture of Kazan in '73) before being crushed and its leader executed in 1774 and '75.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Formerly a Haitian black slave, L'Ouverture (1743 - 1803) was the leader of an anti-French revolt that gained Haiti its independence, but ended up a captive of General Leclerc during Napoleon's (#170) invasion of that island in 1802-3. He is considered one of the fathers of Haitian independence.
- Tsar of Russia from 1801 to 1825, Aleksandr would successfully defeat Napoleon (#170) in the later parts of the Napoleonic Wars and managed to secure many lands in Eastern Europe for Russia at the Congress of Vienna (#192), at which he was Russia's representative.. The first part of his reign was concerned with liberal reforms; strangely, the second part was involved in abolishing those.
- Also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay and fought on the night of August 1-2, 1798, Nelson (#164) and the British fleet defeated the French fleet in Egypt, preventing Napoleon (#170) from further victory in the Middle East.
- A Spanish painter and printmaker, Goya (1746-1828) worked for the Spanish Crown, and was a member of the Romanticist movement. He painted Third of May, 1808 in commemoration of the massacres of the Spanish people during the French occupation of Iberia.
- Italian early physicist, astronomer, and scientist (1564 - 1642) who came up with numerous concepts, including acceleration and developing Copernicus' (#8) heliocentric theory (#11), for which he was punished by the Inquisition. He was one of the first early great experimenters of the early/pre-Enlightenment (#50).
5 True/False questions
Law of Gravitation → Formulated by Newton (#10), these state relationships between a body and the forces acting thereon. In quickie terms, from first to last: inertia, F = ma, and action-reaction.
sans-culottes → French Revolutionary currency issued by the Constituent Assembly (#120) after 1790, they were needed because the government was bankrupt. They persisted until 1803, when Napoleon (#170) introduced the franc as the new French currency.
skepticism → philosophical/scientific doctrine, with heavy basis in Cartesian thought (#18), which questions the reliability of claims by subjecting them to rigorous testing and investigation. In philosophy, it is the idea never to make a truth claim (including the claim that truth is impossible which is itself a truth claim!). Ambrose Bierce and Voltaire (#43) were notable skeptics.
Encyclopédie → The most left-leaning of the Jacobins (#124) during the days of the Convention (#134), they were supported by the sans culottes (#147) and fought against Robespierre (#144), eventually aligning themselves with Hébert (#153).
Napoleonic Code → Originally a group of Breton delegates to the Estates General of 1789 it soon developed into a group of radical left-wing politicians, led by Robespierre and even spread to other professions; it grew so large that there were several different factions of it, including the Montagnards (#145) and Girondins (#141). After the end of the Committee's Reign of Terror it was closed.