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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. a priori
  2. Vindication of the Rights of Woman
  3. Marie Antoinette
  4. Benedict de Spinoza
  5. Ancien Régime
  1. a Wife of Louis XVI (#99) and daughter of Maria Theresa, she was queen of France (1755 - 93; r. 1774 - 91) and had a very extravagant lifestyle (which was slightly exaggerated in the press), leading the People to hate her so much that she got executed via guillotine as well as her husband in the same year. Quotable Quote: "Qu'ils mangent de la brioche." (English: Let them eat cake; probably not actually uttered by Marie Antoinette, since her writings actually show an amount of sympathy towards the poor.)
  2. b Often combined with a posteriori, it is what can be deduced without experience. A posteriori, in opposition, would be anything that requires experience or knowledge to state.
  3. c A Jewish-Dutch philosopher (1632 - 77), he was another of the great rationalists, and wrote Ethics (#23) as his magnum opus. He normally crafted lenses, but had great mathematical ability and helped lay the foundation for the later Enlightenment (#50). However, most of his work was not appreciated until after his death.
  4. d Written by Wollstonecraft (#118) in response to Emile (#69) and Declaration of the Rights of Woman (#123), it advocated equality between men and woman and equal education for boys and girls. Many feminists of the time distanced themselves from this work due to the author's personal controversy.
  5. e The French governmental system under the Valois and Bourbon Kings, it was swept away by the Revolution in 1789. Key tenets include the Three Estates, parlements, and the Divine Right of Kings.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. The French government between 1789 and 1791, it issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man (#115) and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (#127), and developed the Constitution of 1791 (#121), upon which it dissolved and was replaced by the Legislative Assembly (#130).
  2. King of France and Navarre from 1814 to 1824, he was the restored Bourbon King who initially tried to reverse the effects of the Revolution, and was unseated in the Hundred Days (#198). Later, he would prove a fairly moderate King until the 1820s, during which he would turn ultraconservative.
  3. One of the most radically left-leaning of the Jacobins (#124), he proposed the Cult of Reason (#157) in opposition to Robespierre's (#144) Cult of the Supreme Being, and for his troubles was guillotined (#140) during the climax of the Terror (#154).
  4. The French version of an Executive Order in the ancien regime, it was a letter signed and sealed (the French Seal was called the cachet) by the King to one of his nobles or servants, ordering that servant to perform some service or other action that could not be appealed. Through this method, the King could order a parlement to pass a law over its own objection, or break up an assembly.
  5. Basically a petition of grievances, each representative to the Estates General (#107) brought this from his constituency as what he wanted out of the session. Each of the Estates would develop their own cahier based on the will of the members, and then the whole Estates General would come up with a cahier general for presentation to the King.

5 True/False questions

  1. BastilleA prison for political prisoners in Paris, it was stormed by a crowd of bread rioters on 14 July 1789, signifying that the power of Louis XVI was irrelevant compared to the power of the sans culottes (#147).


  2. MontagnardA version of Catholicism in parts of France from the 1500s to the 1700s, Jansenism placed its emphasis on original sin and the necessity of God's forgiveness. Jansenists also believed in predestination, as did Luther and Calvin. Pascal (#27) was probably one of the most famous Jansenists.


  3. Brumaire CoupOccurring on 18 Brumaire VIII (9 November 1799), it was the overthrow of the Directory (#161) by Napoleon and the establishment of the Consulate (#172). It was heralded by the incident of 30 Prairial (18 June), when Abbe Sieyes (#108) ridded himself of the other four Directors.


  4. St. HelenaA direct tax on the non-nobles in ancien regime France (#80), the taille was based on the amount of land a household held and was widely hated by the reign of Louis XVI (#99)


  5. Edmund BurkeIssued in November 1806 following Napoleon's (#170) victory at Jena in the War of the Fourth Coalition (#189), it installed Napoleon's Continental System (#184).


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