5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Jacobin Club
- Reign of Terror
- Estates General
- Galileo Galilei
- Napoleonic Code
- a The French civil code, established by Emperor Napoleon I (#170) in 1804, it was the first successful codification of law outside of the old Roman Empire. It notably prohibited ex post facto (or retroactive) laws and established the supremacy of the husband as compared to the wife (Note: only legally. Please don't hurt me.).
- b Italian early physicist, astronomer, and scientist (1564 - 1642) who came up with numerous concepts, including acceleration and developing Copernicus' (#8) heliocentric theory (#11), for which he was punished by the Inquisition. He was one of the first early great experimenters of the early/pre-Enlightenment (#50).
- c Period during the Convention (#134) during which the Committee (#151) ruthlessly suppressed risings (real and perceived) against its power by judicious use of the guillotine (#140). It lasted from September 1793 to the Thermidorian Reaction (#160).
- d A French ancien regime (#80) assembly consisting of the three Estates (nobility, clergy, and commoners), it was mainly used to rubber-stamp the King's wishes until 1789. When Louis XVI (#99) asked for more money, the Third Estate was given the same weight of vote as the others, and walked out in protest (#111).
- e Originally a group of Breton delegates to the Estates General of 1789 it soon developed into a group of radical left-wing politicians, led by Robespierre and even spread to other professions; it grew so large that there were several different factions of it, including the Montagnards (#145) and Girondins (#141). After the end of the Committee's Reign of Terror it was closed.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- A group of French philosophers in the 18th century, they supported deism, toleration, and the abolition of slavery. Often, they criticized the government through satire and other indirect ways.
- The final location of Napoleon's (#170) exile following the Hundred Days (#198), it was where he finally died in 1821.
- Copernicus' (#8) theory that the Earth and all of the other planets go around the Sun.
- Rallying cry of the French Revolutionaries; literally translated "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" into English.
- Napoleon's (#170) attempt at making economic war on Britain, it was supposed to be, in effect, an embargo of Britain by Europe, as he could not win naval victory outright. Many of his wars following 1807 were fought to enforce the System.
5 True/False Questions
non-juring [refractory] clergy → Term used for the bishops and clergy who didn't accept the Civil Constitution (#127), they were mostly in western France and helped incite the uprisings in the Vendee (#148) against the various Revolutionary governments.
Jonathan Swift → A version of Catholicism in parts of France from the 1500s to the 1700s, Jansenism placed its emphasis on original sin and the necessity of God's forgiveness. Jansenists also believed in predestination, as did Luther and Calvin. Pascal (#27) was probably one of the most famous Jansenists.
Laws of Planetary Motion → Formulated by Newton (#10), these state relationships between a body and the forces acting thereon. In quickie terms, from first to last: inertia, F = ma, and action-reaction.
Tennis Court Oath → Taken on 20 June 1789 by the National Assembly, it was in response to the King's Guards' blocking of the Third Estate from the Estates General (#107). They pledged to not separate until the security of the French government was guaranteed.
Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen → Written by Edmund Burke in 1790, it was one of the most famous intellectual attacks on the Revolution.