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amendment

alteration or addition to the constitution

antifederalists

someone who opposes the federal systen of government

Articles of Confederation

America's first constitution which failed

authority

the right to use power

bicameralism

having two houses as a legislative body

Bill of Attainder

an act of legislature finding a person guilty of treason or felony without trial

Bill of Rights

defines Americans' rights as citizens

bureaucratic view

belief in a government by many bureaus, administrators, and petty officials

checks and balances

government branches have the power to check each other

coalition

a temporary alliance of distinct parties or states for joint action

commerce clause

gives Congress the power to regulate interstate and foreign commerce (trade)

concurrent powers

powers that are shared by the state and federal government

Constitutional Convention

there it was decided that there would be a republican government and a balanced government, and there would be voting

Constitutional Democracy

based of popular sovereignty; structures, powers, and limits of the government are set forth in a constitution

democracy

a system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences

direct (particapatory) democracy

form of democracy in which most, or all, of the citizenry participate directly

elite

a group of persons excersising the major share of authority within a large group

enumerated powers

list of items in the Constitution of Congress' powers

ex post facto law

constitution prohibits convicting a person for committing an act that was not illegal at the time the act was performed, but was later made illegal

express powers

powers spelled out in the Constitution

faction

a party or group that is often self-seeking

federalism

seperation of power between national and state government

federalists

supporters of the federal system of government

Full Faith and Credit Act

requires states to put full faith and credit in other states

Great Compromise

said the government would be bicameral, representation by population in the lower house (house of representatives), and equal representation in the senate

Habeas Corpus

requires a person to go before a court or judge before restraining their liberties

inherent powers

powers that sovereign states hold

implied powers

powers authorized by the Constitution that seem to be implied by powers expressly stated

inalienable

not capable of being repudiated

legitimacy

what makes a law or constitution a source of right

line-item veto

power of the president to veto particular items of a bill without having to veto the whole bill

majority rule

the most votes wins

National Supremacy Article

says that federal laws take precedence over state laws

New Jersey Plan

this plan pushed for unicameralism and equal representation

power elite view

belief that the small percentage of people who are rich should rule

pluralist view

emphasize political competition among groups

popular consent

people allow themselves to be governed by the people they choose

power

the ability to do or act

power elite

closely knit alliance of military, government, and corporate officials percieved as the center of wealth and political power

representative democracy

a government in which leaders make decisions by winning a competative struggle for popular vote

republic

representative democracy

reserved powers

powers reserved exclusively to the jurisdiction of a particular political authority

separation of powers

having three branches of government: legislative, judicial, and executive

Shay's Rebellion

a group of farmers led by Daniel Shay that rebelled and made leaders question the Articles of Confederation's power limit violations of property rights

statism

support or belief in the sovereignty of states

3/5 Compromise

3/5 of slave population counted for representation in the lower house

unalienable

not alienable; inalienable

Virginia Plan

pushed for three branches, bicameralism, representation based on population, and a national government

War Powers Clause

gives the Congress the power to declare war

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