a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction.
loss of feeling or sensation
Glial cell that supports neurons in the brain
autonomic nervous system
a division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions like respirations, heart rate, and digestion
central nervous system(CNS)
brain and spinal cord
the fluid in and around the brain and spinal cord
large part of the brain that controls the senses and thinking
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.
Any of the 12 paired nerves that originate in the brain stem
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord
a neurotransmitter that is associated with Parkinson's disease
neurotransmitter that helps with depression
cell bodies and unmylenated fibers
regions primarily containing myelinated axons; appear glossy and white
cell that carries messages throughout the nervous system
chemical used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse (ex. -acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine)
sympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
parasympthetic nervous system
Part of the automaonic (involuntary) nervous system which produces effects such as decreased blood pressure and heart rate
a neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord
nerve cell that carries signals from the central nervous system to muscle or gland cells
Alzheimer s Disease
an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning
cerebrovascular accident. stroke
sudden disturbance in brain function sometimes producing a convulsion
a progressive disorder characterized by scattered demyelination of nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord
inflammation of a nerve
inflammation of the meninges
any of the 31 pairs of nerves emerging from each side of the spinal cord (each attached to the cord by two roots: ventral and dorsal)
peripheral nervous system
the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity
neurotransmitters that give one a feeling of well-being, euphoria or eliminate pain
fight or flight reponse
sympathetic nervous system
paralysis from the waist down
Paralysis of all four extremeties
inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning, and tingling.
the nerve path of a reflex
mental deterioration of organic or functional origin
control center for hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature
movement away from the midline
movement toward the midline of body
aerobic training, endurance training
running long distances, long term exercise
a muscle that relaxes while another contracts
Upper arm muscle that causes elbow flexion
Sac filled w/synovial fluid (between the tendon and bone) over use leads to bursitis
a circular movement of a limb or eye
bends the foot upward at the ankle
Part of the abdominal muscles; forms the external lateral walls of the abdomen.
inability of muscle to maintain force of contraction after prolonged activity
Calf muscle that causes plantaflexion
extends thigh at hip
located at the back of the upper leg consists of 3 separate muscles, biceps femoris, semitendinosous and semimembranosous muscles. flexes leg at knee joint
muscle enlargement from overuse
the point of attachment of a muscle to the part that it moves
connection of branched cardiac muscle fibers
tenses abdominal wall and compresses abdominal contents
Muscle tenses but stays the same length
Involves movement of the muscle contracting. ex lifting weights
extends and adducts humerus
a large muscle that raises the lower jaw and is used in chewing
the act of chewing
A neuron that sends an impulse to a muscle , causing the muscle to move.
A single long cylindrical muscle cell that contains many nuclei
closes and protrudes lips
point of muscle attachment to bone that remains stationary
point of muscle attachment to bone that moves
pulls the arm forward in flexion and across the chest
bending the sole of the foot or pointing the toes downward
the way one holds one's body; a pose or position.
muscle responsible for a particular body movement
muscle that assists a prime mover
The muscle that has an action opposite to that of the prime mover
straightens the leg at the knee (extension)
rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face upward
rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward
muscle above and near the ear
connects muscle to bone
triangular muscle of the shoulder involved in shoulder elevation, head extension
a single momentary muscle contraction,
inflammation of a bursa
carpal tunnel syndrome
chronically overused of hands overuse injury
muscles waste away
Increase in size of muscles
an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells
sudden and sometimes painful contractions of the muscles
hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles
Pain in the muscle
inflammation of muscle tissue
loss of the ability to move a body part
abnormally low body temperature
Most common and serious type of malignant bone cancer. Occurs more often in males. Age group 20-40
cancer of skeletal hylaine cartlidge. second most common cancer of skeletal tissues. Most frequently occurs between 40-70
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium. "brittle bones"
childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus.
disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency in adults
bacterial infection of bone and bone marrow causing inflammation
bone fracture that breaks through the skin
bone fracture that does not break through the skin
Stretching of ligaments around joint
overstretching, overexertion, or overuse of soft tissue, less severe than a sprain. May occur from a slight trauma or unaccustomed repeated trauma
fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed
progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of articular cartilage. "wear and tear" arthritis.
a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities
a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
infectious artritis. transmitted by deer tick. forms bullseye rash
benign tumor of fat cell
malignant black mole or malignant tumor of the skin.
the spread of cancer cells beyond the original site of growth
benign tumor of consisting of bone tissue
a benign epithelial tumor of a gland
malignant tumor of a gland
benign tumor of cartilage
A cancerous tumor
a period in which symptoms and signs stop.
germ. bacteria or virus
a benign, superficial wart-like growth on the epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body.
large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur
slightly movable joint. gliding joint.(ex.vertebrae)
forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones
found on the epiphyses of long bone and function to cushion and reduce friction in the joint.
a joint; the point where two bones come together
Connective tissue that is more flexible than bone.
The dense, hard layer of bone tissue
shaft of a long bone
freely movable joint (hinge joint, pivot joint)
method of bone formation in which cartilage is replaced by bone
membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
Ends of long bone (contains red marrow).
Growth plate, made of cartilage, gradually ossifies
remnant of epiphyseal plate; in adult long bones
smaller of the two lower leg bones
open spaces in a baby's head where the bones have not joined. "soft spots"
formation of blood cells in bone marrow
upper arm bone
hip bone. also called coxal bone or pelvis
Lower portion of pelvic bone. "sit bone"
Connects bone to bone
hollow center of the diaphysis
hand bone, palm
bone forming cells
thin membrane that covers a bone
bone of the lower arm (thumb side)
bone of the lower arm (pinky side)
ball and socket
shoulder and hip joints(circular movement)
immovable joint (ex. sutures skull)
seven short bones which form the ankle
any of the eight small bones of the wrist
A break in the bone on the growth plate.
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
bones of arms and legs
Bones with complicated shapes (e.x., vertebrae and hip bones)
bones of ribs, shoulder blades(scapula), pelvis, skull, sternum
Fingers and Toes
anterior body trunk inferior to ribs
Right Upper, Left Upper, Right Lower, Left Lower
right hypochondriac region, right lumbar region, right inguinal (iliac) region, epigastric region, umbilical region, hypogastric (pubic) region, left hypochondriac region, left lumbar region, and left inguinal (iliac) region
erect, feet forward, arms at side with palms facing forward, head facing forward
study of body structure
toward the front, ventral
extremities or limbs, arms, legs
Relating to head, neck, and trunk, the axis of the body. core
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
several types of body tissues that together form a function
integumentary, muscoskeletal, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive, endocrine, lymphatic(immune) are form by groups of organs working together for a special function.
Spaces within the body that contains the internal organs or viscera.
the muscular structure that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. A major muscle of respiration.
involving a surface only
extending relatively far inward
toward the head
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
toward the back or spine. posterior
toward the midline of the body
Away from the midline of the body. toward the side
located above the stomach
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
away from attached base or origin
an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
feedback loop (negative)
maintain homeostasis. ex. excercise bring in more oxygen
( breath harder)
feedback loop (positive)
body "amps" up. Ex. clotting, childbirth. Does not care about maintaining homeostasis.
processes and functions of an organism.
divides the body into anterior and posterior. Coronal plane
the maintenance of stable internal conditions of the organism
lying face upward or palm up
lying face downward. palm facing downward.
the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
pertaining to the lungs
divides the body into right and left parts
divides the body into equal right and left sides
divides the body into superior and inferior portions
located on the left and right sides over the hip bones
pertaining to below the stomach
lack of normal differentiation, as shown by cancer cells
a substance that stimulates an immune response. (ex. bacteria, virus)
the wasting away of a body organ or tissue; any progressive decline or failure; to waste away
A fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell. ( ex virus, bacteria)
an organelle that prepares proteins for shipping them out of the cell
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction. Brian of cell.
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
provides support for your body and connects all its parts. bone, tendons, adipose tissue, cartlidge, blood,. Most abubndant tissue.
tissue composed of neurons(nerve cells). ex. Brain, spinal cord.
tissue that controls the internal movement of materials in the body, as well as external movement. (ex. skeletal, smooth, cardiac)
Thin hair-like projection from the cell. (ex. lung cells to sweep out dust, smoke)
tissue covers internal and external surfaces of body. (ex. skin)
Increase in NUMBER of cells. This are normal cells. (ex. callus)
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy(ATP)
thin outer boundary of a cell that regulates the traffic of chemicals between the cell and its surroundings.
the endocrine system's master gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands