Society of the Cincinnati
an exclusive hereditary order formed by the Continental Army officers
Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom
created in 1786 by Thomas Jefferson and his co-reformers; stated that religion should not be imposed on anybody and that each person decided his/her own faith.
The Philadelphia Quakers--1775
founded the first anti-slavery society.
The 1st Continental Congress--1774
Called for the complete abolition of the slave trade. Several northern states went further and either abolished slavery altogether or provided the gradual emancipation of slaves. No states south of Pennsylvania abolished slavery.
The 2nd Continental Congress--1776
To draft new constitutions. Massachusetts called a special convention to draft its constitution and then submitted the final draft to the people. As written documents, the state constitutions were intended to represent a fundamental law, superior to the short-lived impulses of ordinary legislation.
In the Revolutionary era, the capitals of New Hampshire, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia were all moved westward.
preceded political democracy.
Due to the independence from Britain, the United States had to make everything on its own which it no longer imported from Britain. Many Americans were poor because the economy was so bad.
Articles of Confederation 1777
Shortly before declaring independence in 1776, the 2nd Continental Congress appointed a committee to draft a written constitution for the new nation. It was adopted by Congress in ______ and it convinced France that America had a genuine government in the making. The Articles of Confederation wasn't ratified by all 13 colonies until 1781.
Ratification of Articles of Confederation--1781
The Articles of Confederation wasn't ratified by all 13 colonies until 1781.
The 13 colonies were joined together for joint action in dealing with common problems such as foreign affairs.
Power of Congress
Congress had 2 major handicaps: It had no power to regulate commerce, and this loophole left the states free to establish conflictingly laws regarding tariffs and navigation. Congress couldn't enforce its tax collection program. The states were NOT required to pay the government taxes, they were merely asked.
Land Ordinance of 1785
stated that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
a uniform national land policy; created the Northwest Territories and gave the land to the government, the land could then be purchased by individuals; when a territory had 60,000 people, it might be admitted by Congress as a state, with all the privileges of the 13 other states.
New Commerce Conditions
Britain declined to make any commercial treaty with the colonies or to repeal its Navigation Laws. Lord Sheffield argued in his pamphlet that Britain could win back America's trade. The British remained in the Americas where they maintained their fur trade with the Indians. The American states did not honor the treaty of peace in regard to debts and Loyalists. The British stayed primarily to keep the Indians on the side of the British so to defend against future attacks on Canada by the Americans. Spain was openly unfriendly to the Americans. It closed off the Mississippi river to commerce in 1784.
Mississippi River was closed to commerce
in western Massachusetts when impoverished back-country farmers, who were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies, attempted to enforce their demands of cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeovers; led by Captain Daniel Shays. The uprising was crushed but it left fear in the propertied class of mobs."
Virginia called for a convention at Annapolis, Maryland. There, Alexander Hamilton saved the convention from collapsing - delegates from only 5 states showed up. He called upon Congress to summon a convention to meet in Philadelphia the next year, not to deal with just commerce, but to fix then entire fabric of the Articles of Confederation.
Alexander Hamilton was an advocate of a super-powerful central government
May 25, 1787 (Constitutional Convention)
55 representatives from all of the states except for Rhode Island were sent to Philadelphia to talk of the government in the future of the country. George Washington was elected as the leader.
Patriots in Philadelphia
The delegates hoped to save the revolutionary idealism and make it into a strong political structure.
Compromises and New Ideas
Some of the delegates decided they would scrap the old Articles of Confederation, contradicting instructions from Congress to revise it.
Proposed by Virginia and was first pushed forward as the framework of the Constitution. It said that the arrangement in Congress should be based upon a state's population.
It centered on equal representation in Congress without regards to a state's size or population.
It called for representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation in the Senate. Each state would have 2 senators. The new Constitution also called for a President. Because of arguments over if the slaves would count towards the general population of the state, the "three-fifths compromise" was created. The new Constitution also called for the end of the slave trade by the end of 1807. All new state constitutions except Georgia's forbade overseas slave trade. Rhode Island was not present at the Constitutional Convention.
Slave trade must end this year
The members of the Constitutional Convention agreed economically-demanded sound money and the protection of private property; and politically-favored a stronger government with 3 branches and with checks and balances among them.
led by Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee. The followers consisted of states' rights devotees, back country dwellers, and one-horse farmers - in general, the poorest class.
led by George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. Most of the Federalists lived in the settled areas along the seaboard. Overall, they were wealthier than the Anti-federalists, more educated, and better organized. They also controlled the press.
Signing the Constitution
Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, and New Hampshire were the first 9 states to sign the Constitution. Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island were the only states to not sign it. Virginia, New York, and North Carolina all ratified the Constitution before it was put into effect. Rhode Island was the last state to ratify it and it did so only after the new government had been in operation for a few months. These 4 states did not ratify the Constitution because they wanted to but because they had to. They could not safely exist outside the fold.
Mix of conservative and new/democratic idead
The architects of the Constitution contented that every branch-executive, judiciary, and legislative-effectively represented the people. By imbedding the principle of self-rule in a self-limiting system of checks and balances among these 3 branches, the Constitution settled the conflicting doctrines of liberty and order.
Congress Drafts Washington
The Second Continental Congress selected George Washington to head the army besieging Boston.
April 1775- July 1776
colonists were both affirming their loyalty to the king by sincerely voicing their desire to patch up difficulties while at the same time raising armies and killing redcoats.
A tiny American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point. There, a store of gunpowder and artillery was secured.
The colonists captured Bunker Hill. The British took it back with a large number of soldiers.
the Second Continental Congress adopted the "Olive Branch Petition", which professed American loyalty to the king and begged to the king to stop further hostilities. The petition was rejected by the king. With the rejection, the Americans were forced to choose to fight to become independent or to submit to British rule and power.
"Olive Branch Petition"
Document professing American loyalty to end the further hostilities that was rejected by the king
King George III proclaimed that the colonies were in rebellion. He then hired German Hessians to bring order to the colonies.
the British burned Falmouth (Portland), Maine. & colonists made an attack on Canada in hopes that it would close it off as a possible source for a British striking point. The attack failed when General Richard Montgomery was killed.
the British set fire to Norfolk.
Ideas of Americans before Paine
The Americans continued to deny any intention of independence because loyalty to the empire was deeply ingrained; many Americans continued to consider themselves apart of a transatlantic community in which the mother country of Britain played a leading role; colonial unity was poor; and open rebellion was dangerous.
released a pamphlet called Common Sense in 1776. It argued that the colonies had outgrown any need for English domination and that they should be given independence.
It argued that the colonies had outgrown any need for English domination and that they should be given independence.
creation of a new kind of political society, specifically a republic, where power flowed from the people themselves.
power flows from the people
July 2, 1776
Richard Henry Lee of Virginia's resolution of declaring independence was passed. It was the formal declaration of independence by the American colonies.
appointed to draft up the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence was formally approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. It was an explanation of everything the king had done to the Americans.
Declaration of Independence--July 4, 1776
It was an explanation of everything the king had done to the Americans.
"Tories" (a thing whose head is in England, and its body in America, and its neck ought to be stretched.") Made up 16% of the American population. Many people of education and wealth remained loyal to England. Loyalists were most numerous where the Anglican church was strongest. The Loyalists were well entrenched in New York City, Charleston, Quaker Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. They were least numerous in New England.
"Whigs." The Patriots were numerous where Presbyterianism and Congregationalism flourished-mostly in New England.
The Loyalist Exodus
Before the Declaration of Independence, the Loyalists were treated relatively mild. After, though, they were hanged, imprisoned, and roughly handled. They Loyalists were forced to leave because the Patriots had to eliminate their weaknesses.
New York City
A base of operation due to the fact that Boston was evacuated in March 1776.
General Washington and his men were overpowered by the British at the Battle of Long Island. Washington and his men escaped to Manhattan Island.
General William Howe
General Washington's adversary.
December 26, 1776
Washington surprised and captured 1,000 Hessians who were sleeping.
British Scheme for capturing Hudson River--1777
It would sever New England from the rest of the states and paralyze the American cause. The main invading force, lead by General Burgoyne, would push down the Lake Champlain route from Canada. General Howe's troops in New York, if needed, could advance up the Hudson River to meet Burgoyne near Albany. The 3rd force was commanded by colonel Barry St. Leger, who would come in from the west by way of Lake Ontario and the Mohawk Valley.
October 17, 1777
General Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire command at Saratoga on to American general Horatio Gates (Burgoyne's Blunder). This win made it possible for the urgently needed foreign aid from France. (Turning point in war.)
After the shooting at Lexington in, French secretly provided arms to the Americans. The British offered the Americans home rule after the Battle of Saratoga. The French didn't want Britain to regain its colonies for fear that Britain would seize the sugar rich French West Indies. In order to stop this, the French made an open alliance with the Americans in 1778, offering all the British did with the exception of independence.
France made an open alliance with the Americans
Spain and Holland became allies against Britain.
The British decided to evacuate Philadelphia and concentrate their strength in New York City.
General Benedict Arnold turned traitor against the Americans
Counterblow to Arnold
General Nathaniel Greene succeeded in clearing most British troops out of Georgia and South Carolina.
The Treaty of Fort Stanwix- (1784)
the first treaty between the United States and an Indian nation; signed with the Iroquois.
George Rogers Clark
conceived the idea of capturing the British of the wild Illinois country in 1778-1779.
John Paul Jones
known as the father of the navy. He employed the tactic of privateering.
when privately owned and crewed vessels were authorized by a government during a wartime to attack and capture enemy vessels, men, cargo, etc; it diverted manpower from the main war effort; it brought in needed gold, harassed the enemy, and raised American morale by providing victories in a time when victories were few
The U.S. government fell nearly bankrupt.
British General Cornwallis fell back to Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown to await seaborne supplies and reinforcements. This time in war was one of the few times when British naval superiority had been lacking.
Lack of Naval superiority
Admiral de Grasse offered to join the Americans in an assault of Cornwallis via the sea. George Washington, along with Rochambeau's army, and Admiral de Grasse cornered Cornwallis. He was forced to surrender on October 19, 1781.
October 19, 1781
Rochambeau's army, and Admiral de Grasse cornered Cornwallis, forcing him to surrender
a Whig ministry replaced the Tory regime of Lord North
Treaty of Paris of 1783
British formally recognized the independence of the United States, Florida is given to Spain, Britain granted generous boundaries, stretching to the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south, Yankees were to retain a share in the priceless fisheries of Newfoundland, the Loyalists were to no longer be prosecuted, Congress was to recommend to the state legislatures that confiscated Loyalist property be restored. The states vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the way of Loyalist property collection. Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay negotiated the peace terms with Britain.
a just society in which all citizens willingly subordinated their private, selfish interests to the common good. Both the stability of society and the authority of government thus depended on the virtue of the citizenry-its capacity for selflessness, self-sufficiency, and courage.
a group of British political commentators, made attacks on the use of patronage and bribes by the king's ministers. They warned citizens to be on guard for possible corruption.
only colony to be formed by Britain.
The Navigation Law of 1650
Stated that all goods flowing to and from the colonies could only be transported in British vessels. It was aimed to hurt rival Dutch shippers
Navigation Laws strictly
Prime minister George Grenville _________ ________ Due to the French and Indian War, Britain had a very large debt.
the first law ever passed by Parliament to raise tax revenue in the colonies for England. The Sugar Act increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.
The Quartering Act of 1765
required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops.
George Grenville imposed a stamp tax on the colonies to raise revenues to support the new military force. This stamp tax, known as the _____ _____, mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax.
The Stamp Act Congress of 1765
brought together in New York City 27 distinguished delegates from 9 colonies. The members drew up a statement of their rights and grievances and requested the king and Parliament to repeal the hated legislation. The meeting's ripples began to erode sectional suspicions (suspicions between the colonies), for it had brought together around the same table leaders from the different and rival colonies. It was one step towards intercolonial unity.
agreements made to not import British goods were an stride toward unionism.
The Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty
Took the law into their own hands by enforcing the nonimportation agreements.
Repeal of the Stamp Act--1766
Parliament repeals the Stamp Act
Reaffirming Britain's right to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever.
Parliament passed the ______ ____. They put a light import tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea.
Boston Massacre--March 5,1770
British officials, faced with a breakdown of law and order, landed 2 regiments of troops in the colonies in 1768. On March 5, 1770, a crowd of 60 townspeople attacked 10 redcoats and the redcoats opened fired on the civilians, killing/wounding 11 of them.
Repeal of Townshend Acts
Lord North was forced to persuade Parliament to repeal the Townshend revenue duties.
Master propagandist and engineer of rebellion; formed the first local committee of correspondence in Massachusetts in 1772 (Sons of Liberty).
Sons of Liberty--1772
first local committee of correspondence
Committees of Correspondance
created by the American colonies in order to maintain communication with one another. They were organized in the decade before the Revolution when communication between the colonies became essential.
March of 1773
the Virginia House of Burgesses, the lower house of the Colony of Virginia, proposed that each colonial legislature appoint a standing committee for intercolonial correspondance. Within just a year, nearly all of the colonies had joined.
the British East India Company was overstocked with 17 million pounds of unsold tea. If the company collapsed, the London government would lose much money. Therefore, the London government gave the company a full monopoly of the tea sell in America. Fearing that it was trick to pay more taxes on tea, the Americans rejected the tea. When the ships arrived in the Boston harbor, the governor of Massachusetts, Thomas Hutchinson, forced the citizens to allow the ships to unload their tea.
December 16, 1773
a band of Bostonians, disguised as Indians, boarded the ships and dumped the tea into the sea. (Boston Tea Party)
Parliament punished the people of Massachusetts for their actions in the Boston Tea Party. Parliament passed laws, known as the Intolerable Acts, which restricted colonists' rights. The laws made restrictions on town meetings, and stated that enforcing officials who killed colonists in the line of duty would be sent to Britain for trial (where it was assumed they would be acquitted of their charges).
Boston Port Act
It closed the Boston harbor until damages were paid and order could be ensured. (an Intolerable law)
The Quebec Act
was passed in 1774, but is not apart of the Intolerable Acts. It gave Catholic French Canadians religious freedom and restored the French form of civil law; this law nullified many of the Western claims of the coast colonies by extending the boundaries of the province of Quebec to the Ohio River on the south and to the Mississippi River on the west.
the 1st Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in order to redress colonial grievances over the Intolerable Acts. The 13 colonies, excluding Georgia, sent 55 men to the convention. (The 1st Continental Congress was not a legislative body, rather a consultative body, and convention rather than a congress.)
7 weeks of deliberation (End Result)
the 1st Continental Congress drew up several papers. The papers included a Declaration of Rights and solemn appeals to other British-American colonies, to the king, and to the British people. The creation of The Association was the most important outcome of the Congress. It called for a complete boycott of British goods; nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption.
called for a complete boycott of British goods; nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption.
The British commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops to Lexington. They were to seize provisions of colonial gunpowder and to capture the "rebel" ringleaders, Samuel Adams and John Hancock. At Lexington, 8 Americans were shot and killed. This incident was labeled as the "Lexington Massacre." When the British went on to Concord, they were met with American resistance and there were over 300 casualties and 70 deaths. Because of this, the British had a war, rather than a rebellion on their hands.
At Lexington, 8 Americans were shot and killed, while they were looking for Samuel Adams and John Hancock
The population of Britain was over 3 times as large as the population of America. Britain also had a much greater economic wealth and naval power.
British, though, there was rebellion brewing in Ireland, and France, bitter from its recent defeat, was waiting for an opportunity to attack Britain. Britain was therefore forced to divert much of its military power and concentration away from the Americas. Britain's army in America had to operate under numerous difficulties; provisions were short and soldiers were treated brutally.
Marquis de Lafayette (Amer. Pro)
French who was made a major general in the colonial army at the age of 19; the "French Gamecock"; his services were invaluable in securing further aid from France.
The Articles of Confederation was adopted in 1781. It was the first written constitution adopted by colonists.
Due to the lack of metallic money in America, Continental Congress was forced to print "Continental" paper money. Within a short time, this money depreciated significantly and individual states were forced to print their own paper money.
At Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, American men went without food for 3 days in the winter of 1777-1778.
Baron von Steuben
German who helped to whip the America fighters into shape for fighting the British.
royal (British) governor of Virginia. In 1775, he issued a proclamation promising freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British army. "Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment"
"Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment"
regimen of black by Lord Dunmore