## Chapter 2: The Nature of Sound

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sandayyy_x3  on August 31, 2011

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# Chapter 2: The Nature of Sound

 Brownian Motionrandom high-speed movement of molecules due to their inherent energy
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#### Definitions

Brownian Motion random high-speed movement of molecules due to their inherent energy
Pressure a force that acts perpendicularly in a surface
positive pressure pressure higher than atmospheric pressure
negative pressure pressure lower than atmospheric pressure
volume velocity rate of gas flow
driving pressure difference between high and low pressure areas that causes air to flow between these areas
laminar flow air that flows smoothly with molecules moving in a parallel manner and at same speed
turbulent flow air that has irregular flow with random variations in pressure
volume amount of space occupied in 3 dimensions
density amount of mass per unit of volume
Boyle's law as volume increases, pressure decreases and reverse at a constant temperature and desnity
compression an area of positive pressure
rarefaction an area of negative pressure
tympanic membrane eardrum
Hooke's law states that the restoring force o elasticity is proportional to the amount of displacement undergone by object
elasticity restoring force that brings an object back to original size, shape, or position after being displaced or deformed
inertia tendency of matter to remain at rest or in motion unless acted on by an outside force
amplitude amount of displacement of an object from its rest position
damping decrease of amplitude due to friction
wave front outermost area of sound moving spherically through the air
waveform graph with time on x axis and amplitude on y axis that is use to represent pressure change over time
frequency rate of vibration of an object
Hertz unit of measurement of frequency
period of a wave tie that each cycle takes to occur
periodic wave in which every cycles takes the same amount of time to occur and in which the extent of pressure changes is equal for all cycles
aperiodic a wave in which individual cycles don't take the same amount of time to occur
wavelength the distance covered by one complete cycle of pressure change
incident wave a sound wave that is generated, travels a certain distance, then hits a boundary
absorption the damping of a wave with diminishing changes in air pressure due to friction
reflection a portion of sound that is not absorbed or transmitted bounces back from surface of boundary and travels in opposite direction of incident wave
interference two or more waves combine with each other
constructive interference increases the amplitude of the resultant wave
destructive interference decreases the amplitude go the resultant wave
phase relative timing of high and low pressure in waves
reverberation a sound lasts slightly longer due to interference
simple harmonic motion a smooth back and forth movement with a characteristic pattern of acceleration through rest position and deceleration at end point of movement
pure tone a sound wave with only one frequency
complex sound a wave with 2 or more frequencies
fundamental frequency the lowest frequency in a complex periodic sound
harmonic frequencies frequencies above the fundamental frequencey
Fourier analysis mathmatical procedure to identify the individual harmonics in a complex sound

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