the collection of data from every member of a population
a sample in which the relevant characteristics of the sample members are generally the same as the characteristics of the population
design or conduct tends to favor certain results
one in which every member of the pop has an equal chance of being selected to be part of the sample
simple random sampling
every possible sample of a particular size has an equal chance of being selected
using a system such as choosing every 50th member of the population
we use a sample that happens to be convenient to select
first divide pop into groups, or clusters, and select some of these clusters at random. then obtain the sample by choosing all the members within each of the selected clusters
use this method when concerned about the differences among subgroups, or strata, within a population. first identify the strata, then draw a random sample within each stratum. total sample consists of all samples from individual strata
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