Chapter 1

Created by brookeborgmann 

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Body Planes Directional Terms Motions Topography Equine Topography Bovine Topography Body Cavities Bental Terms

toward the tip of the nose

Rostral

toward the head

Cranial

toward the tail

Caudal

toward the back of a standing animal

Dorsal

toward the belly of a standing animal

Ventral

away from the body

Distal

toward the body

Proximal

away from the median plane

Lateral

toward the median plane

Medial

toward tail end of the body; toward feet on humans

Inferior

toward head end of body; on humans

Superior

toward the surface of the body or a body part

Superficial

toward the center of the body or body part

Deep

the back of the hind leg distal to the tarsus

Plantar

back suface of the front leg distal to the carpus

Palmar

lying on the dorsal body surface with the vetral surface facing up

Dorsal Recumbent

lying on the side

Lateral Recumbent

lying on the ventral body surface with the dorsal surface facing up

Sternal Recumbent

body is tilted between dorsal or sternal recumbency and later recumbency

Oblique Recumbent

decrease angle between bones

Flexion

increase angle between bones

Extension

move away from median of body

Abduction

move toward median of body

Adduction

turning the hand so that the palm is forward

Supination

to turn downward or backward as with the hand or foot

Pronation

circular movement of a limb or eye

Circumduction

extension of the foot so that the toes point downward as in standing on tiptoe

Plantarflexion

the act of bending backward (of the body or a body part)

Dorsiflexion

bending to the side

Lateral Flexion

rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body

Internal Rotation

Rotation of the hip or shoulder away from the midline

External Rotation

the act of turning inside out

Inversion

turning sole outward; weight on inner edge of the foot

Eversion

part of the proximal from limb between shoulder and elbow

Brachium

part of front limb between elbow and carpus

Antebrachium

part of distal front limb between carpus and digits

Manus

part of rear limb between hip and stifle

Thigh

part of rear limb between stifle and tarsus

Crus

part of distal rear limb between tarsus and digits

Pes

residual in the dog, present in cats

Clavicle

Region beween the anus and reproductive organs

Perineal Region

lower right and left region near the groin (inguin/o= groin), which is the area where the legs join the trunk of the body. This region, on right and left, is also known as the iliac region because it is near the ilium, which is the upper portion of the hip bone

Inguinal Region

irregular oval scar located on the midline; attachment site of the umbilical cord for the fetus (the "belly button")

Umbilicus

"white line", fusion of abdominal aponeurosis(fascia) along the midline

Linea Alba

pertaining to the neck

Cervical

pertaining to the chest

thoracic

area of back between ribs and hips

Lumbar

area between hips

Sacral

tail bone

Coccygeal

top of the head between the bases of the ears

Poll

rostral part of the face formed mainly by the maxillary and nasal bones

Muzzle

point at which the windpipe meets the head on the ventral aspect of head; strap of a bridle or halter passes here

Throat Latch

area dorsal to scapulas

Withers

circumference of thorax at the level of the heart

Heart Girth

truck of the body- formed by the rib cage and the abdomen

Barrel

lateral surface of the abdomen between the last rib and the hand legs

Flank

either side of the backbone between the hipbone and the ribs in humans as well as quadrupeds

Loin

the part of a quadruped that corresponds to the human buttocks

Croup

tarsus

Hock

joint between cannon bone and the proximal phalax of hoofed animals

Fetlock

area of the proximal phalanx of hoofed animals

Pasten

the fold of skin on the neck

Dewlap

The bottom portion of the hoof that the animal
actually stands on. It is made of the same type of cells
as the hoof wall, only it is slightly softer than the wall.

Sole

the hind part of an animal

Rump

Dorsal part of the base of the tail

Tail Head

tuber coxae

Hook Bones (Tuber Coxae)

pin bones

Pin Bones (Tuber Ischii)

indention

Paralumbar Fossa

The two separate digits (toes) of a cloven hoof.

Medial and Lateral Claws

The accessory toe at the back of the hoof that
serves no function.

Medial and Lateral Dewclaws

end of a boline tail

Switch

mammary gland of bovine

Udder

contains primarily the major organs of digestion

Abdominal Cavity

chest cavity

Thoracic Cavity

The space within the abdomen that contains the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, reproductive organs, and urinary bladder.

Peritoneal Cavitiy

cavity that recieves food for digestion

Oral Cavity

superior opening of the true pelvis

Pelvic Inlet

the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus

Mediastinum

teeth located just lateral to the incisor teeth

Canine Teeth

most rostral group of teeth

Incisor Teeth

rostral cheek teeth

Premolar Teeth

caudal cheek teeth

Molar Teeth

the complete arched arrangement of upper or lower teeth

Dental Arch

left or right half of each dental arch

Quadrant

exposed part of a tooth above the gum line

Crown

hidden part of a tooth below the gum line

Root

area where the roots of a multirooted tooth join the crown

Furcation

toward the crown of a tooth

Coronal

toward the tip of the root of a tooth

Apical

toward the gingiva (gum)

Gingival

surface of a tooth facing the cheeks

Buccal

surface or edige facing toward the rostral end of the mouth

Mesial

surface of an upper tooth facving the hard palate

Palatal

surface of a lower tooth facing the tongue

Lingual

surface of a tooth facing the lips

Labial

the flat grinding surface of molar teeth

Occlusal

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