Super Quiz Theories/Ideas on Evolution

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From the Acalon list in the Super Quiz Kit

Allopatric Model of Speciation

Leopold von Buch; occurs when species are geographically isolated; sympatry

Big Bang

Belgian astronomer and Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaitre

Biological Species Concept

species is a group of organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspring with one another

Biologist's View of Evolution in the Nineteenth Century

accepted evolution but rejected natural selection b/c of blending theory of inheritance; evolution by chance

Biometrician's View of Evolution

speciation occurred in small shifts of the whole population and rejected macromutations

Blending Theory of Inheritance

offspring blend with thier parents' traits

Catastrophism

Earth and geological events formed suddenly as the result of some great catastrophe; Abraham Gottlob Werner and Baron Georges Cuvier

Cuvier's Idea of Species

species fixity

Darwinian Evolution

change over time via natural selection; not automatically progressive; blending theory of inheritance

Directed Mutation (Directed Variation)

offspring tend to differ from their parents in a certain direction for an unknown reason; Lamarckian inheritance; bird protowing

Evo Devo

evolutionary devolopmental biology; most animals share the same tool kit genes which can be turned on/off; emphasis on gene expression

Evolution

organisms change in form and behavior through time b/c of genetic variation

Evolutionary Uniformitarianism

Peter and Rosemary Grant; analogous to Lyell's geographic uniformitarianism; evolution has always occurred at the same rates

Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection

rate of adaptive change is directly proportional to the genetic variation that is present

Fixity of Species

species could not change b/c God had created them as perfect creatures

Genome Size

theory that larger genome sizes lead to larger cells

Goldschmidt's Theory

speciation was product of macromutations, not selection of small variants; opposite of biometricians

Larmack's View of Evolution

lineages lasted indefinitely, changing from one from to another; species did not go extinct, changed via internal forces and acquired characteristics

Lamarckian Inheritance

offspring tend to differ from their parents due to the characteristics acquired during their parents' lifetime; giraffes

Mendel's Theory of Genetics

alleles are seperate and do not merge

Mendelian's View of Evolution prior to the Modern Synthesis

speciation occurred by macromutations and rejected natural selection

Modern Synthesis

merger of Mendelian genetics with Darwinian evolution; "changes in allele frequencies within populations"; RA Fisher, Sewall Wright, Dobzhansky, Mayr, Simpson, and G Ledyard Stebbins

Natural Selection

Darwin and Wallace; organisms with favorable traits were more fit relative to other organisms, more likely to survive; directional selection, stabilizing selection, disruptive selecting

Neutral Theory

Motoo Kimura; evolutionary rates and polymorphisms in terms of mutation and genetic drift; proven to be wrong

New Systematics

defined a species by their ability to interbreed rather than a "type" species

Punctuated Equilibrium

Gould and Eldredge; fossil record; macroevolution occurs in abrupt changes from one species to another with the lack of a transitional form

Principle of Biological Succession

William "Strata" Smith; each period of the Earth's history has its own sets of fossils

Robson and Richard's Theory

GC Robson and OW Richards; did not accept Mendelism or Darwinism; believed difference b/w species were non-adaptive

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