A physical and mental response to a challenging or threatening situation.
an event requiring adaptation or adjustment. Any time the demands of the situation exceed your ability to cope.
determined to achieve, sense of time urgency, irritable, quick to respond to threat or challenge, impatient with obstacles.
hostility = argumentative, resentful, holding grudges
A personality trait involving a tendency to deny feelings of anger, anxiety, or fear; stressful situations cause heart rate and blood pressure to rise sharply
People with this trait are more likely to fall ill than people who can acknowledge feelings.
locus of control
A general expectation about whether the results of your actions are under your own control (internal locus) or beyond your control (external locus)
an effort to modify reality by changing other people, the situation, or events
A "fighting back" philosophy
the stress factors that exacerbate illness
hostility & depression are linked to heart disease
General Adaptation Syndrome
Alarm reaction - the body mobilizes it's resources to cope with a stressor
Resistance- the body seems to adapt to the presence of the stressor
Exhaustion- the body depletes it's resources
Sympathetic nervous system is activated: The "fight or flight reaponse"
Activates adrenal glands & internal organs
Cortisol, epinephrine, & norepinephrine (and other steroid hormones) that promote strength & endurance are released
Increased HR, BP, blood sugar, blood flow (everywhere but gut) & perspiration. Pupils dilate, muscles tense
Decreased blood flow to the gut.
rebound phase" = the body attempts to resist the chronic stressor.
Physiology of alarm phase continues although lessened.
Immune system kicks in to bring the body back to homeostasis
The body is too weak to deal with other stressors added on.
you're more emotionally reactive
depletion of hormones. There's no fight left. No energy.
If stressor persists, the alarm reaction reappears
Autonomic nervous system overcompensates until death, chronic illness or conquer of stressor.
Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis
A system activated to energize the body to respond to stressors
The hypothalamus sends chemical messengers to the pituitary gland.
The pituitary gland prompts the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol and other hormones.
risk and protective factors relating to stress
Learning to alternately tense and relax muscles, lie or sit quietly, or meditate by clearing the mind
Lowers stress hormones, enhances immune function
Massage therapy,Exercise,Meditation,Deep Breathing
Friends can help (protective factor)
Social support = People who have network of close connections live longer than those who do not.
After heart attack, those with no close contacts were twice as likely to die.
Relationships can also cause stress.
Giving support to others can be a valuable source of comfort.
internal locus of control
(within) LOC = success comes from my efforts
external locus of control
(outside) LOC = If I was successful, it was just dumb luck. I was lucky.
an effort to accept reality by changing your own attitudes, goals, or emotions
A "learn to live with it" philosophy