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Microbiology is the study of microbes. Microbes include

algae, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa.

Chloe loves cheese and has decided to become a cheesemaker when she gets out of college. Chloe has to take microbiology classes as part of her food science degree because

making cheeses requires bacteria and knowledge of how to culture bacteria.

Using microbes to solve biological problems and to produce large quantities of useful items is known as

biotechnology.

Genetic engineering

uses microbes to produce substances like human insulin.

Claude's dog is vomiting frequently, so he takes him to the vet. The vet tells Claude that his dog has a parasite problem; specifically, the dog has roundworms that are causing his vomiting. This means

Claude's dog is the host, and the roundworms are parasites.

The 1st person to make a microscope and observe "tiny animals" was

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.

Edward Jenner was able to vaccinate James Phipps against smallpox by noticing that

milkmaids got cowpox, and being exposed to that virus protected them from the similar smallpox virus.

The death rate of mothers delivering in a Vienna hospital in the 1850s dropped enormously because

Ignaz Semmelweis convinced doctors to wash and treat their hands antiseptically.

The Koch postulates are used to establish that

a specific microorganism may be the cause of a disease under study.

Louis was asked to present a paper on the idea that microbes could develop without any cellular parentage. This idea is called

spontaneous generation.

The most general (and largest) taxa for microbes is

kingdom

The most specific (and smallest) taxa for microbes is

species

Pauli has discovered a new species of bacterium. The genus is Streptococcus, and Pauli is allowed to name the species after himself. Thus, the precise name for this species will be

Streptococcus pauli.

Biovars vary from one another in terms of

biological properties.

Archaea literally means

"ancient."

Prokaryotes can be divided into what 2 domains?

Bacteria and Archaea

Prokaryotes are distinguished from eukaryotes by the absence of a ___________ in the former.

nucleus

Eukaryotes include everything from

humans to snails to seaweed but not bacteria.

Celeste has managed to classify her bacteria from domain through species, but she is concerned about the fact that some of her bacteria vary slightly, although not enough to knock them out of the species. These variations were once called

strains.

Several different serovars of a single species of bacterium can get past a person's immune system because

1 serovar is different enough from another serovar that immunity to 1 doesn't protect against the other.

Resolution by a light microscope can only go to 1000x, so objects of what size are the smallest to be visible with a light microscope?

0.1 microns

Staining of bacteria (such as the Gram stain) serves which of the following purposes?

It provides contrast of the specimen against the light background.

Pierre is having a lot of trouble distinguishing the cell morphology (shape) of his prepared bacterial Gram stain under his light microscope. Pierre's professor suggests he try

using the highest power (oil immersion) objective lens and increasing the light.

Duncan is gathering the materials necessary to stain some microbes. He decides to use a differential stain called a Gram stain. This means

he uses 2 stains: 1 that stains Gram-positive bacteria violet and 1 that stains Gram-negative bacteria red or pink.

Electron microscopy involves staining viruses with what?

Heavy metals

Electron microscopy allows us to see viruses that are

0.03-0.3 microns in size.

In 1 type of electron microscopy, electrons pass through the specimen, but heavy metals pile up around the virus and scatter electrons. This type is known as

transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Which type of electron microscopy resolves down to the smallest possible micron size?

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

A medium is a mixture of nutrients that will

support the growth of microbes.

Plastic dishes into which a warm liquid medium can be poured are called

petri dishes.

Which of the following statements is true?

Water is an example of a polar molecule, whereas oil is an example of a nonpolar molecule.

Yolanda is trying to picture a polar molecule in her head. Which of the following would be the best mental image of this type of molecule?

An image of a magnet with positive and negative ends

A solution is described as neutral if its pH is equal to

7.

If a material has a high pH number, this means that the material is

a base.

Polymeric molecules have

many copies of a few chemical subunits.

Macromolecules can take the form of

proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, or lipids.

Dinah is studying a cell sample, and she notices that the cells within the sample rely on the presence of a particular protein molecule in order to break down nutrients into smaller molecules. This molecule would best be categorized as

an enzyme.

DNA and RNA are

nucleic acids.

One major difference between DNA and RNA is that

RNA is usually single-stranded, whereas DNA is almost always double-stranded.

Lipids are found in the membrane of every cell. These substances

function as a barrier to molecules that want to pass through the membrane.

Using a light microscope, Felix is able to see several shapes of bacteria. He identifies a spherical cell, a rod-shaped cell, and a helical cell. Thus, Felix's slide contains

a coccus, a bacillus, and a spirochete.

Diplobacilli would consist of

2 linked cells that are each rod-shaped.

There are 2 kinds of clusters of bacilliforms that are not typically seen. They are

staphylobacilli and tetrabacilli.

The cell membrane's primary function is to control

what leaves and enters a cell.

The water-like material found inside the plasma membrane of a bacterium is called

the cytoplasm.

The cell wall of a bacterium is made up of a substance called peptidoglycan, which

is a multi-layered, cross-linked structural carbohydrate held together by short peptide linkages.

Janae is diagramming a bacterium that has a corkscrew filament coming out of it. She identifies this as the

flagellum.

The function of fimbriae is to

attach to host cells.

Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria differ in terms of

their number of cell envelope layers.

Gram's staining involves 2 types of dye and washing the aggregates from the

Gram-negative bacteria.

A bacterial process of recombination that requires cell-to-cell contact is called

conjugation.

Who developed the germ theory of disease?

Koch

Bacterial motility is produced by

flagella.

A bacterium that grows only in the absence of oxygen is a/an

obligate anaerobe.

Rapid growth of bacteria occurs in the

log phase

How do cyanobacteria obtain their energy?

Photosynthesis

Spontaneous changes in genes occur because of

mutagenesis

What component of the bacterial cell wall gives it rigidity?

Peptidoglycan

The most important cellular organelle in the destruction of a pathogen is the

lysosome

All of the following are part of bacterial flagella

# the basal body.
# the flagellin.
# the hook.

Which process produces the greatest amount of ATP?

Electron transport

If a double-stranded DNA virus has a 40% G + C content, how much A will be present?

30%

Which of the following statements is correct concerning viruses?

# All viruses are intracellular parasites. (0 Points)
# All viruses contain a nucleocapsid. (0 Points)
# All viruses contain either DNA or RNA but not both.

The specific characteristic of heterotrophs is that they

obtain carbon from organic compounds

The most important advantage of solid media over broth is that it allows

specific colonies to be isolated

Sterilization indicates

an absence of life

Detergents primarily act on microbes by

dissolving the lipid membranes.

The beta-lactam ring of penicillins is destroyed by

β-lactamase.

An antibiotic reserved for the treatment of tuberculosis is

isoniazid.

The best antiherpes simplex drug is

acyclovir

The antiviral agent that acts to stop uncoating is

amantadine

All of the following predispose people to opportunistic infection

# genetic defects in immunity. (0 Points)
# immunosuppressive therapy. (0 Points)
# malnutrition.

All of the following are natural barriers (1st line of defense) to infection

* skin. (
* saliva.
* acidity of the stomach.

Which of the following is spread via aerosols?

# Rabies virus (0 Points)
# Arboviruses (0 Points)
# HSV-2 (0 Points)

Opsonization is enhanced by

antibodies.

Which of the following is produced by macrophages?

Interleukin 1

What is likely to grow to unusually high levels in the vagina when a woman is taking broad-spectrum antibiotics?

Candida

A source of Legionnaires' disease is

water cooling towers.

Bacteria that have lost the ability to grow on a specific sugar are called

auxotrophs.

Penicillin antibiotic therapy will be most effective against

Streptococcal infections

Mycobacteria are unusually hard for the host to overcome because they

have a waxy cell wall

The principal cell killed by the HIV virus is

T helper or CD4

The varicella-zoster virus is the cause of

chicken pox

Hepatitis B virus

destroys liver cells

Kaposi's sarcoma is associated with infection by the

human immunodeficiency virus.

A virus that contains reverse transcriptase is

human immunodeficiency virus

A protein that causes a given gene or operon to start expressing is called a/an

inducer

Zoonotic transmission is observed for

salmonellosis.

Which of the following diseases is a concern for biological warfare?

Anthrax

An infected woman is more likely than an infected man to miss recognizing which of the following symptoms?

Chancre

A disease that is most common in the Ohio-Mississippi River drainage area, is spread from bird droppings, and is diagnosed as a yeast in bronchoalveolar lavage washings is

histoplasmosis.

The feeding form of Giardia lamblia is called a

trophozoite

What do malarial merozoites infect?

Red blood cells

A parasite that is likely to damage the liver and have a life cycle stage in a snail is a

fluke

The agent that causes swimming pool conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis is

adenovirus.

The alcohol in alcoholic beverages is normally produced by

yeast

What organism makes a natural pesticide?

Bacillus thuringiensis

What microbe shells are used to decontaminate water supplies?

Diatoms

Air is forced through sewage to

help aerobic bacteria grow

Actinomycetes as Nocardia and Streptomyces are commonly found in

soil.

A bacterial process of recombination that involves the uptake of free DNA is called

transformation

Staphylococcus aureus causes

food-associated illness (intoxication)

Clostridium perfringens causes

gas gangrene.

Who 1st utilized aseptic technique in hospitals?

Lister

An organism that grows well at 37°C is a/an

mesophile

Preparation for rapid growth occurs in the

lag phase

When bacteria carry out aerobic respiration, the electrons finally travel through the electron transport chain to what component?

Oxygen

Which of the following terms include all fungi?

Molds and yeasts

Which of the following can fix nitrogen?

Cyanobacter

The presence of virus particles in blood is called

viremia

Which of the following does not occur in the infection cycle of all viruses?

Transformation

When a bacteriophage becomes lysogenic, it

integrates its DNA into the host but does not immediately get replicated.

Which of the following statements concerning the Gram stain is correct?

Bacilli may stain pink or purple.

Which kinds of microbes are observed from healthy human blood when observed in the light microscope?

All kinds except viruses

Which of the following is true concerning the lac operon of E. coli?

When the inducer is bound to the repressor, the operon is active.

Mutations are caused by

X rays

Autoclave sterilization is generally achieved at

121oC at 15 pounds of pressure for at least 15 minutes

The best gaseous disinfectant is

ethylene oxide

β-lactamases make bacteria resistant to penicillin by

enzymatically degrading the drug

The greatest number of antibiotic allergic reactions because of widespread use is due to

penicillins

Which of the following is a notably long-lived cell?

Macrophage

Inflammation helps because

increased vascular permeability allows better access for phagocytes.

Which class of antibody has its principal role in secretions outside the body, such as mucous and saliva?

IgA

A viral envelope

is encoded by the host cell's genes

Serology testing refers to

testing blood for antibodies against an infectious agent.

Chemoautotrophs use what for energy?

Minerals in rocks

Scalded skin syndrome is caused by the same agent that causes

boils.

The tine or Mantoux test for TB tests for what type of immune response?

Cell-mediated immunity

Most fungal infections are acquired from

the environment.

Trichomonas vaginalis is a/an

flagellate.

A virus that becomes latent in nerves of the head is

herpes simplex 1.

Genital warts are caused by

papilloma virus.

A severe congenital disease is caused by

rubella

What is the effect of HIV on CD4 cells?

Cell death

Adults visit their doctors the most frequently for

bacteriuria due to E. coli.

How are bubonic and pneumonic plagues transmitted?

Fleas and respiratory aerosols

The great imposter is used to refer to

secondary syphilis.

Hansen's disease decreases ability to sense a touch and is also called

leprosy

Aflatoxins are unusual in that they can cause

liver cancer

What is the number 1 secondary infectious agent seen in AIDS patients?

Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pneumocystis carinii)

What body site renders Plasmodium species resistant to antiparasitic agents?

Liver

What organism has been associated with diarrhea and transmission on raspberries from Central America?

Cyclospora cayetanensis

Perianal itching suggests use of the cellophane tape test to identify

pinworm.

A red rash that starts on the head and trunk, moves out to the extremities, and lasts 7 days is normally due to

measles virus

A common surface antigen vaccine produced in yeast cells that is especially important to health care workers today is for

hepatitis B

Members of Streptomyces are important in the production of

antibiotics.

What would we call the process of adapting a virus to carry a toxin gene into a plant pest?

Genetic engineering

Which ocean zone contains the greatest number of microbes?

Littoral

Using microbes to degrade contamination of the environment is called

bioremediation.

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