long molecule consisting of many simliar/identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds like a train
small molecules that repeating units that serve as building blocks of polymers
macromolecule types (4)
protein, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids
monomers are connected by a reaction in which 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other
reverse of dehydration reaction, break with water, breaks bonds of monomers by adding water molecules.
monomers are broken how
hydrolysis with addition of water molecules where H from water attaching to 1 monomer and hydroxyl attaching to adjacent monomer
include both sugars and their polymers (polysaccharides). A sugar, starch, or cellulose that is a food source of energy for an animal or plant; a saccharide
The simplest carbohydrates are the _______, or single sugars, also known as simple sugars.
simple sugars, are major nutrients for cells. They generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of CH2O.
Not only are simple sugar molecules a major fuel for cellular work, but their carbon skeletons serve as raw material for the synethesis of other types of small organic molecules, such as _____ __ and __ ____
amino acids & fatty acids.
Fatty acids defn
building blocks of lipids,
Consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage.
Glycosidic linkage defn
a covalent bond formed b/t two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
a disaccharide. Also known as malt sugar, an ingredient for brewing beer.
the most prevalent disaccharide, a table sugar. Its two monomers are glucose and fructose.
Plants generally transport carbohydrates from leaves to roots and other nonphotosynthetic organs in the form of _______
Macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages.
Some _________ serve as storage material, ____ as needed to provide sugar for cells.
Two roles of polysaccharides?
materials for Storage and Structure
A storage polysaccharide of plants, is a polymer consisting entirely of glucose monomers.
What are the two forms of starch?
amylose(unbranched) and amylopectin (branched).
Sugars, the smallest carbohydrates, serve as ___ and ____ sources
fuel and carbon
_____ in plants and ___ in animals are both storage polymers of glucose
_______ is an important structural polymer of glucose in plant cell walls
Starch, glycogen, and cellulose differ in the _______ and _____ of their ______ linkages
positions and orientations, glycosidic
How are fats constructed?
also known as triacyglycerols, are constructed by the joining of a glycerol molecule to three fatty acids by dehydration reactions.
Difference b/t Saturated fats and unsaturated fats?
Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated fatty acids (present in oils) have one or more double bonds in their hydrocarbon chains.
_________ are major components of cell membranes
Where ___ have a third fatty acid linked to glycerol, _______ have a negatively charged _______ group, which may be joined, in turn, to another small hydrophilic molecule. Thus, the "head" of a _________ is hydrophilic
fats, phospholipids, phosphate group, phospholipid
At the surface of the cell, ____________ are arranged in a _______, or double layer.
What is phospholipids behavior toward water?
Their tails, which consist of hydrocarbons, are hydrophobic and are excluded from water. However, the phosphate group and its attachments form a hydrophillic head that has an affinity for water.
When phospholipids are added to water, they _________ into ________ that ______ their hydrophobic portions from water.
self-assemble, aggregates, shield.
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.
One steroid, __________, is a common component of ainmal cell membranes and is also the precursor from which other steroids are synthesized
List six purposes of Proteins
Structural support, storage, transport of other substances, signaling from one part of the organism to another, movement, and defense against foreign substances.
polymers of amino acids.
consists of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into specific confirmations.
amino acids defn
organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups.
R Group defn
A symbol used to represent an unspecified side chain in an organic compound. For example, in amino acids the R group is flanked by Carboxyl and Amino groups, with 20 amino acids that can possibly be the R group.
Structural protein function
Storage protein function
Storage of amino acids
Transport proteins function
Transport of other substances
Hormonal proteins function
Coordination of an organisms activities
Receptor proteins function
Response of cell to chemical stimuli
Contractile proteins funciton
Defensive proteins function
Protection against disease
Enzymatic proteins function
Selective acceleration of chemical reactions
Structural protein example
Collagen and elastin provide a fibrous framework in animal connective tissues. Kertain is the protein of hair, horns, feathers, and other skin appendages.
Storage proteins examples
Ovalbumin is the protein of egg white, used as an amino acid source for the developing embryo. Casein, the protein of milk, is the major source of amino acids for baby mammals. Plants have storage proteins in their seeds.
Transport proteins examples
Hemoglobin, the iron-containing protein of vertebrate blood, transports oxygen, from the lungs to other parts of the body. Other proteins transport molecules across cell membranes.
Hormonal proteins examples
Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, helps regulate the concentration of sugar in the blood of vertebrates.
Receptor proteins examples
Receptors built into the membrane of a nerve cell detect chemical signals released by other nerve cells
Contractile proteins examples
Actin and myosin are responsible for the movement of muscles. Other proteins are responsible for the undulations of the organelles called cilia and flagella
Defensive proteins examples
Antibodies combat bacteria and viruses
Enzymatic proteins examples
Digestive enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the polymers of food.
What can an R group be?
May be a simple as a hydrogen atom, as in the amino acid glycine, or it may be a carbon skeleton with various functional groups attached, as in glutamine.
Peptide bond defn?
When two amino acids are positioned so tha the carboxyl grou pof one is adjacent to the amino group of the other, an enzyme can cause them to join by catalyzing a dehydration reaction, with a resulting covalent bond known as ______
What are the four levels of Protein Structure?
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary
Primary Structure of a protein defn
a protein's unique sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure of a protein defn
the folding or coiling of the polypeptide into repeating configurations, mainly the alpha helix and the beta pleated sheet, which results from hydrogen bonding b/t parts of the polypeptide backbone.
Tertiary Structure of a protein defn
The overall 3d shape of a polypeptide and results from interactions b/t amino acid side chains.
Quaternary Structure of a protein defn
is the overall protein structure that results from the aggregation of these polypeptide subunits.
Nucleic acids____ and ____ herditary information
store and transmit
____ stores information for the synthesis of specific proteins
____ (specifically _____) carries this genetic information to the protein-synthesizing machinery
A _____ _____ strand is a polymer of nucleotides
Each nucleotide monomer consists of a ________ covalently bonded to a _____ group and to one of four different nitrogenous bases ( _____,____,____,___).
pentose, phosphate group, A,G,C, T or U
In making a polynucleotide, nucleotides join in to form a ___ -______ backbone from which the nitrogenous bases project.
The sequence of bases along a gene specifies the ____ ______ sequence of a particular _______
amino acid, protein
Inheritance is based on ______ of the ____ ____ ____
replication, DNA double helix
DNA is a ____, ____-_______ macromolecule with bases projecting into the interior/exterior of the molecule
helical, double-stranded, interior
Because A always ______-bonds to ___, and C to ___, the nuceleotide sequences of the two strands are _________.
hydrogen-bonds, T, G, complementary