Macromolecules of Life

49 terms by nataleeang 

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C3H6O3

smallest naturally occurring carbohydrates

CH2O

the ratio between carbon and hydrogen atoms in all carbohydrates

aldose

Sugar (carbohydrate) containing an aldehyde group -CH=O

ketose

Sugar (carbohydrate) containing a ketone group R-C=O-R'

triose

3 carbon sugar; shortest possible sugar chain

tetrose

4 carbon sugar; very rare

pentose

5 carbon sugar; usually used in DNA and RNA

hexose

6 carbon sugar; common example is glucose

heptose

7 carbon sugar; very rare; largest possible sugar chain

cellulose

the most abundant organic molecule in the world

carbohydrates

the starches and sugars present in foods that serve as the main energy source in all forms of life; generally sweet tasting

monosaccharide

simple sugars with multiple hydroxyl groups; D and L designations

D and L

designation of monosaccharides based on configuration at the carbon atom that is second from bottom depending on which side the hydroxyl group is on

D sugars

the only sugars used in metabolism

oligosaccharides

Sugars containing several simple sugars attached to one another using glycosydic linkages; ex:sucrose, lactose, maltose

glucose/fructose

two common oligosaccharides in plants

glucose/galactose

two common oligosaccharides in animals

tri/tetrasaccharides

two classifications of very rare oligosaccharides

polysaccharides

complex carbohydrates that are most commonly hexanes (used in food) or pentanes (used in DNA/RNA)

hemicellulose

carbohydrate polymers composed of various sugars; structural feature of plant cell walls

xylan

a specific type of hemicellulose that contributes to the rigidity of a plant

inositol

sugar alcohols; only found in plants

pectins

sugar acids; only found in plants

position of -OH

differentiates alpha and beta glucoses

beta cellulose

oligosaccharides that are a main component in the production of cellulose

alpha cellulose

oligosaccharides that are a main component in the production of starches

organoleptic measurements

measures the degree of sweetness of a substance; simulates taste buds

glycosidic linkages

link monosaccharides; bond between H from one sugar and OH from another to form a water molecule

maltose

2 glucose molecules joined by a glycosidic linkage

sucrose

glucose and fructose joined by a glycosidic linkage

lactose

glucose and galactose (animal starch) joined by a glycosidic linkage

alpha linkage

glycosidic linkage that occurs below the plane of the ring; breaks down relatively easily

beta linkage

glycosidic linkage that occurs above the plane of the ring; relatively hard to break

alpha glycosidase

enzyme that breaks down alpha linkages; mechanism by which starch becomes glucose

beta glycosidase

enzyme that breaks down beta linkages; very rare; only means by which cellulose can be broken down; present in the digestive systems of termites and ruminants

20

number of amino acids

amino acids

used to make proteins; available in both essential and non essential forms

essential amino acids

AAs that the body can NOT synthesize; must be intaken through nutrition (8)

non essential amino acids

AAs that are made by the body (12)

neurotransmitters

example of non-protein AAs

enzymes

catalytic proteins

structural

keratin, fibroin, collagen, and elastin are examples of this type of protein

nutrient and storage

zien, gliadin, ovalbumin, casein are examples of this type of protein

motor

actin and myosin are examples of this type of protein

transport

hemoglobin and myoglobin are examples of this type of protein

regulatory

hormones and insulin are examples of this type of protein

defense

antibodies, fibrinogen, and snake venom are examples of this type of protein

special purpose

antifreeze, fluorescence, and sweet proteins are this type

information

glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and flavoproteins are examples of this type of protein

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