Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology - Ch 2

35 terms by bmgilli 

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chemistry

science that investigates matter and its interactions

atoms

basic particles of matter

matter

anything that takes up space

elements

made up of atoms and cannot be changed or broken down into simpler substances

molecule

chemical structure that contains more than one atom bonded together by shared electrons

compound

chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more molecules

metabolism

all of the chemical reactions in the body

catabolism

decomposition of complex molecules; covalent bond is broken and kinetic energy is released

anabolism

synthesis of new compounds

exergonic

reactions that release energy (catabolism)

endergonic

reactions that absorb energy (anabolism)

water

single most important thing for the body; accounts for 2/3 of the total body weight

water

the volume of the body is made up of 60 to 80 percent of this

water

1) essential reactant in chemical reactions; and 2) has high heat capacity (absorbs and retains heat)

carbohydrates

main source of cellular fuel

saccharide

another name for "sugar"

monosaccharide

simple, pure sugar (e.g., glucose)

disaccharide

two simple sugars joined together (e.g., sucrose, lactose)

polysaccharide

lots of sugars joined together (e.g., starches)

lipids

fats, oils, and waxes

fatty acids

long chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms and used as energy sources

fats

used as an energy source, for energy storage, insulation, and physical protection

saturated fats

triglycerides containing many hydrogen atoms

unsaturated fats

trigylcerides missing hydrogen atoms altogether

trans fat

trigylcerides missing hydrogen atoms on either side of the molecule

protein

most abundant organic component and a major structural component of the body

proteins

these provide support, structure, and framework for the body

proteins

these are necessary for building and repair of body

enzymes

catalyze reactions that sustain life by lowering activation energy; starts chemical reactions

DNA

double stranded helix

DNA

determines inherited characteristics; encodes the information needed to build proteins and control shape and physical characteristics of the body

RNA

cooperates to manufacture proteins using the provided information; helps to make copies of DNA

nucleotides

adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil

RNA

contains all nucleotides except for thymine - replaced with uracil

deoxyribose sugar

DNA is made up of nucleotide bases and _________.

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