an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached
a nearly flat plain, alongside a stream or river, that floods naturally
the most important city in Mesopotamia during the first and second millennia B.C.E.
the earliest people in Mesopotamia (during the "historical period")
family of languages spoken (long-term) across parts of western Asia and Northern Africa; included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician; most modern widespread = Arabic
independent ancient urban centers and the agricultural territories they controlled
Amorite ruler of Babylon from r. 1792-1750; he conquered many city-states in northern and southern Mesopotamia; best known for a code of laws inscribed on a black stone pillar (whcih stated legal case principles)
one who copied manuscripts before the invention of printing
a multistory, mudbrick, pyramid-shaped tower approached by ramps and stairs
printing on paper
the number of ways in which social groups provide themselves with the material objects of their civilization
applying water to land for growth of crops
the southern part of Egypt and northern Sudan
a small charm meant to protect the bearer from evil
early pictures styilized into a combo of strokes and wedges
the central figure of the Egyptian state
the divinely authorized order of the universe
smooth, steeply sloping sided tombs; most memorable symbol of ancient Egypt
a ruined city in lower Egypt, on the Nile River, south of Cairo; the ancient capital of Egypt
an ancient city in upper Egypt, on the Nile River, located on the modern towns of Karnak and Luxor
the earliest writing system whose symbols stood for words, syllables, or individual sounds
the material on which to write; made from the papyrus plant; used by ancient Egyptians and Greeks and Romans
a dead, dried, and preserved human being preserved by the ancient Egyptians
a Bronze Age culture that flourished in the Indus Valley
near the Indus valley; six successive ancient cities were built here
to tame or culture for human use
philosophy that agriculture and owning land is the backbone of the economy
any person or group of people without a permanent home, but moving about constantly, as in search of a pasture
an agricultural way of life that involves raising livestock and usually includes some farming
cycle of civilization
a person or thing long established in a place
the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
a complete cycle of events
marked by much sitting
belief in more than one good
the idea that the man was in charge of the family
a group of people forming a single community
learned patterns of action and expression.
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