Anatomy 2 Exam

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What is the major stimulus for the release of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid gland

Humoral

Parathyroid Hormone

Demineralizes bone and raises blood calcium levels

Hypothyroidism

Depression of the CNS and lethargy

Antidiuretic Hormone

Secreted in the posterior pituitary

Epinephrine

Secreted in the Adrenal Medula

Calcitonin

Secreted in the thyroid gland

Aldosterone

Stimulates sodium retnention

Thyrotropin releasing hormone is produced by which area of the diencephalon

Hypothalamus

The venous conncection between the hypothalamus and the adenohophysis is called the

Hypophyseal Portal System

The connection between the hypothalamus and the neurohypophysis is the

Hypothalmo-hypophyseal tract

LH and FSH

Gonadoptropins secreted by the adenohypophysis

The most common form of diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Non hormonal material secreted through dicts onto internal and external body surfaces

Exocrine glands

The most common mechanism for hormonal activity on target cells

Hormones stimulate messenger activation or deactivation which affect other cell events

Bind to intracellular receptors within hte cell nucleus and stimulate gene activation

Steroid hormones

Bind to specific receptros on the surface of the cell and function by way of a second messenger system

Amino Acid hormones

Enzyme link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell activated by an amino acid hormone

Adenylate cyclase

When stimulated by FSH, follicle cells in the ovary produce large quantities of which femal hormone

Estrogen

During pregnancy, the corpus luteum, a structure on the ovary, secretes what hormone

Progesterone

Produced in heart cells, promotes sodium loss, suppresses ADH secretion, reduces blood pressure by decreasing blood volume

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Hormone

Hormone produced in the kidneys that increases the number of red blood cells released from bone marrow

Erythropoietin

Caused by excess secretion of growth hormone prior to puberty, body features are normal but very large

Giganticism

Hormone secretion that would be affected by damage to the superotpic nucleus of the hypothalamus

ADH

Hormone deficiency that causes diabetes insipidus

ADH

Calcitonin

Will lower blood calcium by excreting it in the kidneys and depositing calciumin bones.

Damage to the cells of the zona fasciculate of the adrenal cortex would result in

decreased glcogenesis and the ability to convert lipids to glucose

A rise in angiotensin 2 levels would result in

Fluid retention because of angiotensin stimulating release of aldosterone

Catecholamines

85% epinephrine 15% norepinephrine = adrenaline

Adult GH Hypersecretion

acromegaly

Prostaglandin

Lipid hormones; eicosinoids

Important anablic hormone

Growth hormone

Involved in water balance causeskidney to conserve water

Anti diuretic hormone or aldosterone

Stimulates milk production

prolactin

stimulates milk letdown

oxytocin

increases uterine contractions during bitrth

Oxytocin

Major metabolic hormone

TH (T3 & T4)

Causes reabsorption of sodium ions by kidneys

Aldosterone

Tropic hormone that stimulates thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone

TSH

Hormone secreted by neurohypophisis

ADH and oxytocin

steroid mineralcorticoid hormone

aldosterone

ductless gland, through which hormones are released into the blood stream and effects other glands

endocrine

Renin angiotensin

Major mechanism for the regulation of aldosterone

Parathyroid Hormone

Hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland responsible for increasing plasma calcium levels

Graves disease

an autoimmune disease where the body produces antibodies which act like TSH and leads to increased basal metabloic rate, weight loss, sweating, etc.

Hormone produced by the heart that lowers blood pressure

ANP

Physiologic doses of this hormone cause gluconeognesis. Pharmacologic doses depress the immune system

Corticosteroids, glucocorticoids

Name the mechanism systems for steroid hormone action

Gene Activation

The mechanism systems for amino acid hormone action

Camp

the hormone that is relesased in response to low blood sugar

glucagon

Cushings

the condition caused by excessive clinical adminstration of cortisone or glucocorticoids characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, losses of muscle and bone protein, water and salt retention, resulting in mooned face

Polyuria

excessive urine output

Polydipsia

excessive thirst

polyphagia

excessive appetite

Humoral stimuli

Hormones secreted in direct response to changing blood levels of specific ions and chemicals

Neural stimuli

Nerve impulses (AP's) stimulate hormone release

Hormonal Stimuli

One hormone promotes the release of another hormone

Mineralo corticoids

Mineral and water balance; sodium retention; aldosterone

Gluco-corticoids

Gluconeogenesis; Energy metabolism, anti inflammatory,immune suppression

Gonado-corticoids

Sex hormones

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