does not contain carbon
the backbone of all organic compounds; can readily form four covalent bonds with other atoms, forms long chains with itself, thousands of different molecules with unique functions
a molecule containing only hydrogen and carbon
atoms attached to the carbon skeleton that participate in chemical reactions
hydroxyl group (alcohols)
OH, *polar and hydrophilic b/c of O delta-, dissolves easily in water
carbonyl group (ketones)
C=O,*polar and hydrophobic, electronegative
amino group (amines)
NH2, acts as a base and picks up H+ ion
carboxyl group (carboxcylic acids)
COOH, all amino acids have it at one end*w/negative charge it becomes hydrophilic and is present in cells
shows kind and number of atoms
shows kind, number, and bonding of atoms
chemical building blocks of polymers
a large chain of monomers covalently joined together
builds molecules by removing a water molecule for each bond made
opposite of dehydration synthesis; breaks apart complex molecules by adding water
primary energy source, hydrophilic, 2 to 1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen
monomer: single sugar
main energy for the cell
polymer: two sugars
fructose + glucose
glucose + galactose
macromolecule: many sugars
very large polymers
animal storage of glucose
large, hydrophobic molecules with a high ratio of hydrogen to oxygen, secondary energy source
saturated fatty acid
solid at room temperature, animal derived, all carbons have single bonds to hydrogens
unsaturated fatty acid
liquid at room temperature, plant derived, not all carbons have bonds to hydrogen, one or more double covalent bonds
adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids, forcing the liquid to solidfy, creates trans fat
a fat with a molecule of glycerol linked to three fat molecules
a type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is bent to shape four fused rings
needed to build cell membranes, base for testosterone and estrogen
structurally resembles testosterone and mimics its affects
a polymer constructed by amino acid monomers
protein that provides support
protein that provides a source of amino acids for developing plants and animals
the protein muscles are rich in, responsible for muscles getting shorter
the protein that provides transportation
two amino acids (AA----------AA)
the bond between adjacent amino acids
hundreds of amino acids bonded together in a long chain, sequence of amino acids determines protein
information storage molecule that provide the directions for building proteins, stores hereditary information, directs all cell activity
the genetic material organisms inherit from their parents, involved in protein synthesis
translates nucleic acid language to protein language, involved in protein synthesis
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
monomers of nucleic acid, complex organic molecule with three parts (nitrogonous base, deoxyribose sugar, and phospate)
# of bases monomers and nuclotides
double helix, deoxyribose sugar
single strand, ribose sugar, thymine converts to urisil
Structures made up of two or more atoms
Made of at least 2 different atoms
this type of bonding forms when the outermost, or valence, electrons of an atom are donated or received in association with a second atom
Sharing of electrons so each atom has a complete outer shell
all consist of carbon atoms, Carbon-based molecules
Oxidation reactions: Ionic
refers to a loss of electrons
Oxidation reactions: Covalent
refers to a loss of hydrogen atoms
Reduction reactions: Ionic
refers to a gain of electrons
Reduction reactions: Covalent
refers to a gain of hydrogen ions
a weak chemical bond found between molecules, where one molecule has a covalently bonded hydrogen
Cohesion: for water
water bonded to water; creates surface tension, raindrops, allows things to get wet
Adhesion: for water
Water bonded to other charged compounds. Acts as lubricants, allows things to get wet. Ex. This can be seen in the capillary action where water is "pulled up" in the xylem of plants.
Ex. ICE: Hydrogen bonds become fixed and form this space which leaves large spaces between molecules
non-charged molecules which don't attract water. "water-hating" ex. plasma membrane
charged molecules that are attracted to water "water-loving"
2 or more substances combine w/o forming bonds with eachother
Are mixtures that have combined molecules that are equally distributed throughout
stands for "potential hydrogen" A scale used to indicate the acidity
molecules that dissociate in water, releasing protons H+
turns red litmus paper blue; are substances that dissociate in water (OH-)
acids and bases can neutralize eachother to produce water and salt
Are combinations of a weak acid and its salt, and has the effect of stabilizing the pH of a solution. Even if strong acids/bases are added the pH will not change dramatically
Protein buffer System
found in all tissues
Phosphate buffer System
found in kidneys and intracellular fluid
A polar molecule
always contain carbon and hydrogen atoms
4 electrons in outer shell. Helps form strong colvalent bonds and double/triple bonds with itself
can attatch to carbon chains ex. carboxyl COOH
Variation in covalent arrangement. Same formulas-but different shape and functions
structural: isomer shape
geometric: isomer shape
around a double bond
enentiomers: isomer shape
mirror images of eachother right-handed and left-handed
Organic molecules: 4 classes
1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids
a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
made up of monomers linked/bonded together
"condensation synthesis" extraction/loss of water molecule
Water is added to the molecule to break the polymers into monomers
Elements: C,H,O. 1:2:1 identify by the ending "ose"--- a main source of energy
2 sugars- created by dehydration synthesis
(table sugar) glucose + fructose
milk sugar, glucose + galactose
A long chain of monosaccharides
form in which animals for carbohydrates: like amylopectin except its branching only includes 16-24 glucose units
Are a diverse group of compounds that mainly consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by non-polar covalent bonds
Lipids: 4 kinds
1. Fats/Oils 2. Phospholipids 3. Waxes 4. Steroids
Fats/Oils: 3 Functions in animals
1. long-term energy storage 2. insolation against heat loss 3. forms protective cushion around organs
Fats/Oils: structure: 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids --> fat + 3 water "tri-glyceride" --reffered to as "neutral fat" due to its non-polar nature
consist of a 16-18 atom carbon chain ending with an acid group COOH
straight chains; fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
Fatty acids which have carbon atoms connected by double bonds---butter, lard
The fatty acid contains more than one double carbon bond ex. corn/olive/peanut/sunflower oil--will not solidify at room temperature
major component of all membranes. Hydrophobic tail: 2 fatty acid chains (non-polar). Hydrophylic head: In place of the 3rd fatty acid chain there is a phosphate group(ing) that has both phosphate and nitrogen (which is polar)
One fatty acid linked to an alcohol; more hydrophobic than fats
ipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings: 3 hexagons + 1 pentagon
(under steroids) common in animal cell membranes starting material for estrogen and testosterone
Each one of us has tens of thousands. A biological polymer constructed from amino acid monomers.
5 elements in proteins
1. Carbon 2. Hydrogen 3. Oxygen 4. Nitrogen many times 5. Sulfur
A central carbon covalently to: 1. Amino group NH2 2. carboxyl (acid) group COOH 3. Hydrogen 4. "R" chemical group variable of the amino acid
covalent bond that joins 2 amino acids together (polar)
2 amino acids bonded together
more than 2 amino acids joined together (single chain of amino acids), a protein is eventually formed with 75 or more joined amino acids
Primary structure: protein
amino acids in linear order, for the protein to function, it must have the correct collection of amino acids arranged in precise order ex. amino acid changes in hemoglobin: result is sickle cell anemia
Secondary structure: protein
the regular coiling/folding of a polypeptide created by hydrogen bonding--hydrogen bonding between N-H and C-O groups will produce an alpha helix or a pleated sheet shape
Tertiary structure: protein
"overall 3D shape" --either globular/fibrous. Held in shape by hydrogen bonding or sulfur bonds between amino acids called a disulfide bridge
in the protein tertiary structure. It hold the amino acids in shape
Quaternary structure: protein
The shape when the protein consists of 2 or more polypeptide chains (or subunits) linked together, the subunits may be identical or different ex. hemoglobin: 4 subunits of 2 distinct types
For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
change in protein is permenant, and it will not return to its normal shape or ability to function
Selective acceleration of chemical reactions ex. digestive enzymes hydrolyze the polymers in food
Units of matter that form all chemical substances
What kind of particles make up the chemical properties of atoms
protons, neutrons, electrons
The three subatomic particles that make up the chemical properties of atoms
A subatomic particle of an atom that has one unit of positive charge
A subatomic particle of an atom that is electrically neutral
A subatomic particle of an atom that has one unit of negative charge
Molecules are small to large collections of elements whose atoms are held together by __ __
atoms are made up of _____ particles
_____ is anything that occupies space and has mass (living and non living)
_____ refers to the amount of matter in an object
electrons, neutrons, protons
Atomic mass = total mass of _____, _____, and _____ in a single atom. (alphabetically)
_____ refers to the effect of gravity on that mass
Weight refers to the effect of _____ on that mass
All matter is made up of tiny particles called _____.
Protons and neutrons have identical _____.
Protons and neutrons are located at __ __.
_____ have much smaller mass than protons
Electrons moving rapidly around the nucleus is referred to as an __ __
A proton has one unit of _____ charge
An electron has one unit of _____ charge
Neutrons have _____ charge
Number of protons equals the number of _____.
Number of electrons equals the number of _____.
Number of protons = number of electrons, which makes them _____.
What is pure substance composed of only one type of atom.
Each element, in the periodic table, is designated by an __ __. A one or two-letter chemical shorthand for the element
Of the 109 known elements, how many are normally found in the body?
hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen
Four elements compose 96% of the body's mass: (list in order of highest %)
Of the four main elements, that compose 96% of the body's mass, which one is most abundant and by what percent?
Each chemical element contains a specific number of _____.
Each chemical element contains a specific number of protons, which is known as the _____ _____.
What distinguishes one type of atom from another, number of _____.
Because an atom is electrically neutral, the atomic number is also equal to the number of _____ in the atom.
atomic mass units
What does amu stand for?
Atoms have very little _____.
The _____ _____ scale indicates an atom's mass relative to the mass of other atoms.
The atomic weight scale is based upon assigning the _____ atom a mass of _____.
Two or more atoms bonded together make up a _____. (ex. H₂0)
Chemical bonds form when _____ transfer from one atom to another or when two atoms share ___.
Not all chemical bonds are the same, but all involve _____.
The strongest chemical bond between two atoms is called a _____ bond.
Chemical bond can be considered as an ___ ___ between the electrons of two atoms.
gives up, gains, shares
Most chemical bonds form when an atom _____-___, _____, or _____ one or more electrons with another atom.
An orbital (pathway) traveled by electrons around a nucleus is called an ____ ____
2, 8, 8
Each electron shell can hold a specific number of electrons. The innermost, 2nd and 3rd rings can hold __, __, and __ electrons.
In regards to electron shells, the electrons fill from the ____ ___
neutral, electrons, protons
A single atom is electrically ___ because it contains equal numbers of __ and __.
If an atom gains or loses one or more electrons, it acquires a net __ charge and becomes an ___.
A charged atom is called an ___
Ions that have a net positive charge are called ___
Ions that have a net negative charge are called ___
___ charges attract to each other.
___ and ___ are attracted to each other (due to their negative and positive charges)
Cations and anions are attracted to each other, this is called an ___ bond.
In covalent bonds the shared electrons orbit around ___ atoms.
Atoms that share a pair of electrons are both attracted toward the shared pair, ___ the atoms together.
What kind of bonds link most molecules in the body? __ __.
double covalent bond
Two atoms share two pairs of electrons (as indicated by two lines in a structural formula). This is called __ __ __
double covalent bond
Two covalent bonds between the same two atoms, four electrons are shared...what kind of bond is this? __ __ __
___ bonds are formed when one electron in the outer electron orbit of each atom is shared between the two atoms.
What kind of bond can also form between identical atoms (example H₂), __ bond
With a covalent bond, if an atom completely captures an electron from the other atom what is formed? ___ ___
A covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally...what kind of bond is this? ___ ___ bond.
Covalent bonds in which the electrons are not shared equally between the two atoms is called a ___ ___ bond.
In a polar covalent bond, the atom which has partly lost an electron becomes slightly ___.
In a polar covalent bond, when the electrons reside closer to one atom of the pair the atom acquires a slight ___ charge.
When electrons in a covalent bond are shared equally it is called a ___-___ bond.
Atoms of ___ elements do not always exert the same pull on shared electrons.
Unequal sharing of electrons between different types of atoms, that are covalently bonded, are said to be a ___ ___ bond.
Example: Polar bond - water molecule H20: the oxygen atom pulls shared electrons more strongly than ___ atoms
Polar bond - unequal sharing of electrons, the net charge of the molecule is still ___, just unequally distributed.
Hydrogen bond - attraction of the ___ (hydrogen) end of the polar molecule to the ___end of another polar molecule.
Hydrogen bonds - are very ___ bonds
Out of every 100 molecules in the body ___ are water
Water as liquid? Weak ___ bonds constantly being formed and broken
Temperature increase, hydrogen bonds are broken ___(at what speed), molecules escape and __.
stop, stop, ice
Temperature decrease, hydrogen bonds ___ (at what speed) breaking. When hydrogen bonds ___ breaking....what is formed?
ionic bond, cation, anion
Sodium atom has 11 electrons, chlorine has 17. Sodium loses ane electron and chorline gains an electron. They have now formed an __ __. Sodium is now a __, chlorine became a __.
covalent, ionic, hydrogen
List the molecular bonds, from strongest to weakest: __, __, and __.
It's important to know hydrogen bonds because are made up of __% water.
oxygen, negative, hydrogen
In each water molecule, the shared electrons spend more time close to the larger __ atom, making that area slightly more __ compared to the area near the __ atoms
__ are substances dissolved in a liquid.
__ is the liquid in which solutes are dissolved in.
Solutes dissolved in a solvent form a __.
__ is the most abundant solvent in the body (60% of total body weight).
In order to dissolve in water, a substance must be electrically attracted to __ molecules.
Water has a strong __.
polar bonds, hydrophilic
Molecules that have lots of __ __ or ionized groups will dissolve very easily so are called __.
Neutral covalent bonds will not dissolve in water and thus are said to be __ .
Molecules that have a polar region at one end and non-polar region at the other are called __.
polar (hydrophilic), non-polar (hydrophobic)
Amphipathic molecules: In water they form clusters with their __ (__) regions at the surface of the cluster contacting the water molecules, with the __-__ (__) ends pointing towards the center of the cluster.
Polar (hydrophilic) will want to associate with __.
__: any hydrogen containing substance that donates a proton (hydrogen ion H+) to another substance
An acid is a __ donor and kept the __.
A __ is any substance that accepts a proton (hydrogen ion H+).
The acidity of a solution refers to the "free unbound" __ ion concentrration in the solution.
The higher the ion concentration the greater the __.
Hydrogen ion concentration (acidity) is expressed as __ of a solution.
As acidity increases pH __.
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal compounds of all cells
the site of an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
the force that holds molecules of a single material together
a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into a simpler substances by chemical means: all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part,substance, or element: the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
any compound that increace the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water: bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts
an organic molecule that acts as the main energy sorce for cell processes, composed of a sugar, and three phosphate groups
a type of protein that speeds up metabolic reaction in plants and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed.
a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water, including fats and steriods. They store energy and make up cell membranes.
the smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical & chemical properties of that substance. It can consisit of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together
Any compound that increases the number of hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. They turn blue litmus paper red and react with bases and some metals to form salts
minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by a chemical bond.
the attractive force between two bodies of different substances that are in contact with each other
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed thoroughout a single phase.
any one of 20 different organic molecules that contain a carboxyl and an amino acid group that combine to form proteins.
is dependant on the difference in electronegativity between atoms in a complound and the asymmetry of the compound's structure
What does ATP stand for?
adenisine triphosphate (uh DEHN uh seen)
What is ATP?
This is a single nucleotide with two extra energy storing phosphate groups. Cells need a steady supply of this to function.
Where does ATP come from?
When food molecules are broken down inside cells some of the energy in the molecules is stored temporarily in this.
What is a commonly used example of polarity?
a water molecule. with one negative H molecule and two positive Os.
What are lipids?
nonpolar molecules that are not soluable or are mostly insoluable in water. They include fat, phospholipids, steroidsa and wax. They are an important part of the structure and function of cell membrane.
What is a light absorbing compound? Give an example of one.
Pigments, plant pigment chlorophyll
What are fats?
They are lipids that store energy
What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
single sugars called monosaccharides
this forms when two or more atoms share electrons to form a molecule.
Give and example of a covalent bond
What shape is a protein?
They fold into compact shapes which are determined in part by how the amino acids interact with water and one another.
What are monosaccharides?
single sugars such as glucose, C6H12O6 and Fructose
Where are steroids found?
They are found in animal cell membranes
Give an example of a steroid
What are disaccharides?
double sugars formed when two monosaccharides are joined.
Carbohydrates are made up of what?
they are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1
What are polysaccharides?
a chain of 3 or more monosaccharides such as starch. it is an example of a macromolecule. they function as a storehouse of energy contained in sugars
What is gylcerol
it is a three-carbon organic molecule
What is the molecular structure of fats typically?
typically it contains three (3) fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule backbone.
What is a protein?
it is usually a large molecule formed by linked smaller molecules called amino acids
Unsaturated fatty acid
In this, some if the carbon atoms are linked by a double convalent bond, each with only one hydrogen atom producing kinks in the molecule.
Given examples of fatty acid
most plant oils, such as olive oil and some fish oils contain mostly _____ ans they are generally liquid at room temperature.
What is the molecular structure of a fatty acid?
it is a long chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms bonded to them. MOst carbon atoms in this structure are bonded to either one or two hydrogen atoms. Because bonds between carbon and hydrogen are rich in energy, this can store a lot of energy.
Give the molecular structure and description of a saturated fatty acid
in this, all of the carbon atoms in the chain are bonded by two hydrogen atoms, except the carbon atom at the end that is bonded to three (3) hydrogen atoms. most animal fats contain primarily this type. They are relatively straight molecules and are generally solid at room temperature.
what are amino acids?
these are the building blocks of proteins. there are 20 different ones in the proteins. some are polar and others are nonpolar. some are electrically charged and others are not.
What does polarity of water do?
It enables many substances to dissove in water.
Tell me about polar and nonpolar molecules
Ionic compounds and polar molecules dissolve best in water. nonpolar molecules do not dissolve well in water.
What is hydrogenated vegetable oil?
it contains naturally unsaturated fatty acids that have been saturated artificially by the addition of hydrogen atoms. They are generally solid at room temperature.
4 principal classes of organic compounds that are found in living things?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
What makes up the lipid bilayer?
Give details of transfer of energy or conversion of energy
In any transfer or conversion of ___ from one form to another, ther total amount of energy does not change. The total amount of usable energy always decreases.
In what forms do you find energy?
You find ___ in many forms including light, heat, chemical energy, mechanical energy and electrical energy. It can be converted from one form to another.
Where do you find energy?
You find this n food, in the motion of a speeding car, in the sound of a guitar and in the warmth of a blazing fire.
What is energy?
it is the ability to move or change matter
What is the name of the energy needed to start a chemical reaction?
What is activation energy?
It is simply a chemical "push" that starts a chemical reaction
What is a chemical reaction that occurs in the cells called?
What do biochemical reactions require to begin?
They require an activation energy
What eddect do enzymes have on checmical reaction in cells?
the chemical reaction is cells occur quickly and at relatively low termperatures because of the actions of many ___.
What are enzymes?
___ are substances that increase the speed of chemical reactions. Most of these are proteins. They are catalysts.
What is a catalyat?
They are substances that reduce the activation energy of a chemical reaction which increase the speed.
What is homeostasis?
the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment.
What helps organisms maintain homeostasis?
Enzymes. Without enzymes chemical reactions would not occur quickly enough to sustain life.
What is a substrate?
it is a substance on which an enzyme acts during a chemical reaction. enzyme act on specific ___
What chemical reaction does the enzyme amylase assist?
the enzyme ___ assists in the breakdown of starch to glucose.
What chemical reaction does the enzyme catalase assist?
this enzyme assists in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide H2O2, a toxin formed in cells. In this case, hydrogen peroxide is brokem to watch H2O and oxygen gas O2
What happens as food is digested?
... chemical reactions convert the chemical energy in food molecules to forms of energy that can be used by cells.
What happens when you freeze water to ice?
heat is released.
What happens when you melt ice to water?
heat is absorbed.
What is metabolism?
___ is the term used to desibribe all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism.
Where do your cells get most of the energy needed for metabolism?
This comes from food you eat.
Freezing and melting of water is what kind of reaction?
It is an example of physical, not chemical change.
What is a good example of how energy is released and absorbed?
freezing & melting of water.
How are chemical reactions summarized?
they are summarized by chemical equations written in the folowing form: reactants --> products. The arrow is read as "changes to" or "forms"
After the chemical reactions, the newly formed substances are called what?
What are the starting materials for chemical reactions called?
What do enzyme names in?
name of most enzymes end with "ase" for example "anylase" & "catalase."
What does heat do to an egg?
it causes a cooking egg to change color and solidity. The energy transferred to the egg by this rearranges the atoms and molecules in the egg.
Give examples of activation energy
heat from flame ignites logs in campfire; spark from spark plugs causes gaoline in an automobile engine to ignite.
What are chemical reactions?
energy can be stored or released by this. It is a process during which chemical bonds between atoms are broken and new ones are formed, producing one or more different substances. at any moment, thousands are occuring in every cell of your body.
What is collagen, its function and where is it found?
a protein with an important structural function found in skin, ligaments, tendons and bones.
Structural proteins other than collagen are found where?
They are found in hair, muscles and the fibers of a blood clot.
What are antibodies?
they are proteins that help your body defend against infection
What are hemoglobin
It is a proein in your blood that carries oxygen from your lungs to body tissues
What is a nucleic acid
It is a long chain of cmaller molecules called nucleotides. All cells contain this. There are two types.
What is nucleotide?
It has 3 parts: a sugar, a base and a phosphate group, which contains phosphorus & oxygen atoms.
What are the two types of nucleic acid
DNA & RNA. each contains four kinds of nucleotides.
What does DNA stand for?
this consists of 2 strands of nucleotides that spiral around each other. Chromosomes contain long strands of this. Whixh stores hereditary information.
What does RNA stand for?
What is RNA?
It may consist of a single strand of nucleotides or of based-paired nucleotides. This plays many key roles in the manufacture of proteins. This can also act as an enzyme, promoting the chemical reactions that link amino acids to form proteins.
What molecules does your body use build new structures? and what is it used for?
a mixture of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Used mostly as an energy source by this..
How is the energy value of food measured?
What is the minimum rate of energy use per hour (h)?
basal metabolic rate is about 70 Kcal/h for men and 60kcal/h for women
Dietary Protein sources
Legumes, eggs, milk, fish, poultry and meat. Supplies 4 kcal/g. Dietary protein is the source of amino acids. Proteins also provide raw materials for other compounds such as nucleic acids.
found mainly in vegetable oils, dairy products and meat. contains 9 kcal/g of energy
An enzyme's shape determins what?
What are active sites of a protein?
The enzyme has a large protein with one or more deep fold on its surface. These fold form pockets called this.
What is the enzyme action?
1. a substrate attaches to an enzyme's active site. 2. the enzyme reduces the activation energy of the reaction 3. the enzyme is not change by the reaction
Factors in enzyme activity
any factor that changes the shape of an enzyme can affect the enzyme's activity. for example, enzymes operate best within a cartain range of temperatures and PH values.
What fits into active sites?
an enzyme's substrate fits into the active site. An enzyme acts only on a specific substrate because only that substrates fits into its active site.
What happens to enzymes outside. the certain range of temperature which it operates most efficiently in?
it can either break or strengthen some of the enzymes bond, changing its shape.
What happens to enzymes outside the certain ph value range?
can cause the bonds to break, reducing the enzyme's effectiveness
this in foods comes from plant products (fuits, grains & vegetables) milk, meats, candy & soft drinks. also contains sugars. About 4 kcal of energy are supplied by 1 gram of carbs
Example(s) of a protein
Example(s) of lipids
fats, phospholipids, steriods and waxes
Example(s) of a base
something with a high ph balance like handsoap
Example(s) of acid
something with a low ph balance like a lemon
Example(s) of element
hydrogen, oxygen and carbon (more)
Example(s) of a compound
when sodium atoms, Na, bond with Chlorine atoms, Cl, the compound sodium chloride, NaCl (table salt) forms.
Example(s) of a molecule
Example(s) of cohesion
water forms drops like those on a plant
Example(s) of adhesion
when water molecules move upward through a narrow tube, like a plant stem.
Example(s) of a substrate
the enzyme amylase assists in the breakdown of starch to glucose in the following chmical reaction. In this reaction starch is amylase's substrate.
One of a hundred or so types of matter composed of atoms and can't be chemically changed into simpler substances
The element "H" stands for......
The element "O" stands for......
The Element "N" stands for.......
The element "C" stands for.......
The element "P" stands for......
What is the smallest quantity of an element?
Proton, Electron, Neutron
What 3 particles make up an atom?
What is a positively charged particle?
What is a negatively charged particle?
What is a particle with no charge?
What is the core of the atom where protons and neutrons are located?
Protons and Neutrons
What combines to form the nucleus of an atom?
Where are negatively charged particles located around the protons and neutrons?
What is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom?
The number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom
What determines the atomic number
The Atomic Number
What determines what kind of atom it will be?
What is a combination of atoms held together by chemical bonds (two or more atoms)
What part of the atom is involved in bond formation?
What is the name of the specific pathways that electrons travel around the outiside of the nucleus?
Atoms of elements are always......
The number of protons must be equal to the number of electrons
In order for the atom to be neutral what must take place within the atom to make this occur?
How many electrons can the first electron shell hold?
How many electrons can the second electron shell hold?
How many electrons can the third electron shell hold?
How many electrons can the fourth electron shell hold?
The properties of compounds are always (different, the same) from the properties of the elements that compromise them.
The number of electrons in the outer most enery level of an atom
What determines how the atom will combine with other atoms?
How the atom will combine with other atoms
What do the number of electrons in the outer most energy level of an atom determine?
The bond between two atoms that share a pair of electrons
What are most biological compounds held together by?
The octet is reached by losing or gaining----------
Attration between oppositely charged ions
an atom whose highest energy level has eight electrons, are very -----------------
a substance made of two or more chemically bonded elements
Electrons in the outer most shell. This is what has to do with bonding.
Elements that hvae 1,2, or 3 electrons in their outer shell tend to form ------------- ions
Elements that have 5, 6, or 7 electrons in their outer shell tend to form ------------ ions
Compounds that contain the element carbon.
The -------- of carbon make it a key element in compounds found in biological systems
Many ------------ atoms can bond together to form large complex molecules
Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon
What elements do carbohydrates contain?
The number of sugar units it has
Carbohydrates are classified based on -----------------------------------------------------------
What does monosaccharides mean?
What are monosaccharides?
Glucose, Galactose, Fructose, Ribose
What are four examples of monosaccharides?
What is the most common monosaccharides?
What is the chemical formula for Glucose, Galactose, and Fructose?
What is the chemical formula for Ribose?
Flucose, Galactose, and Fructose are all ------- of one another.
------------------------- can't be broken down any further and still be called sugars.
A single molecule containing two monosaccharides bonded together with a covalent bond.
What does Disaccharide mean?
Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose
What are three examples of disaccharides?
What does Maltose mean?
What does Sucrose Mean?
What does Lactose mean?
Glucose + Glucose
what combines to form maltose?
Glucose + Fructose
What combines to form Sucrose?
Glucose + Galactose
What combines to form lactose?
Many single sugars bonded together result in a very large complex molecule (macromolecules)
What are Polysaccharides?
What does Polysaccharides mean?
What are two examples of Polysaccharides?
Storage form of glucose in plants
Storage form of starch in animals (including humans)
What keeps sending out energy the whole day?
Liver and Muscles
Where do we store glycogen in our body?
Sudden Bursts of Energy
Glycogen in the Muscles are used for............
Glucose in the liver sends out energy in a.........................
Structural Foundation in the cell wall of plants
A group of special atoms that gives organic molecules distinctive properties
has an -OH group attached to one or more carbon atoms
An ---------------- molecule with an -OH group makes the molecule more soluble in water
What are two kinds of Alcohol Groups?
Has -COOH attached to an organic molecule
-COOH release hydrogen ions in sollution therefore is considered an ---------------------
Has a -NH2 attached to an organic molecule
The amine group is a ------------- because it accepts hydrogen ions
A class of organic compounds that include fats, waxes, and oils
----------are an energy Reserve
What is insoluble in water and can dissolve in certain solvents?
Neutral Fats, Steroids, Liquid Lipids
What are three types of lipids?
what is the common storage form of food material in the body?
What are neutral fats also known as?
What are three forms of steroids?
Vegetable Oil, Corn Oil, Peanut Oil
What are three examples of liquid lipids?
------------- is solid at room temperature
------------ is liquid at room temperature
Has the maximum number of hydrogen atoms as possible
what kind of fat has Double bonds replace hydrogen atoms
what kind of fat has many double bonds
Large complex molecules found inl iving cells
Growth, Repair, Maintenance, Cell structure, and some chemical reactions
Proteins are important for what 5 things?
What are subunits of proteins?
How many different amino acids are there?
in chemical formulas what represents the types of atoms that could possibly be attached to the amino acid back bond?
Three or more amino acids linked together form a protein
The process of removing water from molecules sothey will bond with each other to form a larger complex molecule
Monosaccharides combine to form ---------------
Glyceral and fatty acids combine to form -----------------
Amino Acids combine to form --------------------
----------------------is a covalent bond between amino acids
Approximately 100-1000 amino acids to make a ------------------------
each of our cells has approximately 2000 different kinds of proteins
Protein molecules that lower the level of activation and allow reactions to occur at cellular temperatures
Once the reaction begins the activation energy can be removed and the reaction will ------------------------
a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being chemically changed
The molecule on which the enzyme works
addition of water to a molecule (digestion)
positively and negatively charged atoms are known as ---------------
Today, ----------- chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms
Proteins are polymers of molecules called -----------------
plants also make another important polysaccharide called ------------------------
A ----------------------------- forms when electrons are shared between atoms
Carbon atoms have four ---------------------- electrons
The smaller units, or ----------------- join toether to form polymers
The term ---------- is used because the fatty acids contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms.
Living things use ----------------------------- as their main source of energy
Water is the --------------------- :the substance in which the solute dissolves
A chemical ------------------ is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.
The breakdown of sugars, such as ---------------- supplies immediate energy for all cell activites
-------------- can be used to store energy
Simple suar molecules are also called -----------------------------
The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction are known as ----------------------
Chemists call the energy that is needed to get a rection started the -------------------------------
many animals store excess sugar in a polysaccharide called ----------------------, or animal starch
The ------------------ is the smallest unit of most compounds
Strong forces bind protons and neutrons together to form the -----------, which is at the center of the atom
The ------------- is stored in your muscles supplies the energy for muscle contraction and , thus, for movement
a ---------------------------- is a process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another
Cells can regulate the activites of ------------------- in a variety of ways.
The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions are known as -----------------------
A ---------------------- is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Besides glucose, --------------------- include galactose, which is a component of milk, fructose, which is found in many fruits.
What are the two means of digestion?
The rhythmic motion of the stomach and intestines to help move food through the digestive tract
What are two means of physical digestion?
What is a mean of chemical digestion?
What enzyme is found in saliva?
What functinos to break down starch?
Amylase works best at a pH of ---------?
Starch and Amylase form ----------------------
Glucose + Glucose
Maltose + Maltose form ------------------
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
Rain, snow, or fog with a pH below 5.6.
The attraction between different kinds of molecules.
A solution in which water is the solvent.
The small unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.
The approximate total mass of an atom; also called atomic weight. Given as a whole number, the atomic mass approximately equals the mass number.
The number of protons in each atom of a particular element.
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion (H) concentration in a solution.
A chemical substance that resists changes in pH by accepting hydrogen ions from or donating hydrogen ions to solutions.
An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells.
The making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter.
The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
A substance containing two or more elements in a fixed ratio. For example, table salt (NaCl) consists of one atom of the element sodium (Na) for every atom of chlorine (Cl).
An attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons; symbolized by a single line between the atoms.
A type of covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons; symbolized by a pair of lines between the bonded atoms.
A subatomic particle with a single negative electrical charge. One or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom.
An energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
The attraction of a given atom for the electrons of a covalent bond.
A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical means.
Thermal energy; the amount of energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form.
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the partially positive hydrogen atom participating in a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom participating in a polar covalent bond in another molecule (or in another part of the same macromolecule).
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons, thus acquiring a charge.
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
A variant form of an atom. Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus.
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
A group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
An electrically neutral particle (a particle having no electrical charge), found in the nucleus of an atom.
nonpolar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity.
An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons.
A measure of the relative acidity of a solution, ranging in value from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic). The letters pH stand for potential hydrogen and refer to the concentration of hydrogen ions (H).
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
A molecule containing polar covalent bonds.
An ending material in a chemical reaction.
A subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, found in the nucleus of an atom.
An isotope whose nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy.
A starting material in a chemical reaction.
A compound resulting from the formation of ionic bonds; also called an ionic compound.
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
A liquid consisting of a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, consisting of a dissolving agent, called the solvent, and a substance that is dissolved, called the solute.
The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known.
A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has a high surface tension because of the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules.
A measure of the intensity of heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy or speed of molecules.
An element that is essential for life but required in extremely minute amounts.
alpha (α) helix
The spiral shape resulting from the coiling of a polypeptide in a protein's secondary structure.
An organic compound with one or more amino groups.
An organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group; serves as the monomer of proteins.
In an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms.
A synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects.
Member of the class of biological molecules consisting of simple single-monomer sugars (monosaccharides), two-monomer sugars (disaccharides), and other multiunit sugars (polysaccharides).
The chain of carbon atoms that forms the structural backbone of an organic molecule.
In an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a carbon atom linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom.
In an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
An organic compound containing a carboxyl group.
A large polysaccharide composed of many glucose monomers linked into cable-like fibrils that provide structural support in plant cell walls.
A steroid that is an important component of animal cell membranes and that acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other steroids such as hormones.
A chemical process in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule. Also called condensation.
A process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and hence function; can be caused by changes in pH or salt concentration or by high temperature. Also refers to the separation of the two strands of the DNA double helix, caused by similar factors.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double-stranded helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Capable of replicating, is an organism's genetic material.
A sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides linked by a dehydration reaction.
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
A protein that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process.
A large lipid molecule made from an alcohol called glycerol and three fatty acids; a triglyceride. Most function as energy-storage molecules.
An assemblage of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
An extensively branched polysaccharide of many glucose monomers; serves as an energy-storage molecule in liver and muscle cells; the animal equivalent of starch.
A chemical compound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen.
A chemical process in which polymers are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion.
"Water-loving"; pertaining to polar, or charged, molecules (or parts of molecules) that are soluble in water.
"Water-fearing"; pertaining to nonpolar molecules (or parts of molecules) that do not dissolve in water.
In an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom.
Organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and, therefore, different properties.
An organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar convalent bonds, making the compound mostly hydrophobic; includes fats, phospholipids, and steroids; insoluble in water.
A giant molecule in a living organism formed by the joining of smaller molecules: a protein, carbohydrate, or nucleic acid.
In an organic molecule, a carbon bonded to three hydrogens.
A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer.
The simplest carbohydrate; a simple sugar with a molecular formula that is generally some multiple of CH2O; building blocks of disaccharides and polysaccharides.
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular structures and activities; two types are DNA and RNA.
An organic monomer consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group; building blocks of nucleic acids.
A chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually synthesized by cells.
The covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide; formed by a dehydration reaction.
A functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms.
A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group, giving the molecule a nonpolar hydrophobic tail and a polar hydrophilic head; form bilayers that function as biological membranes.
The folded arrangement of a polypeptide in a protein's secondary structure.
A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain.
A polymer (chain) of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
A carbohydrate polymer consisting of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides (sugars) linked by dehydration synthesis.
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific three-dimensional structure.
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
Pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains contain the maximum number of hydrogens and therefore have no double covalent bonds; solidify at room temperature.
The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.
A storage polysaccharide found in the roots of plants and certain other cells; a polymer of glucose.
A type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached; examples are cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen.
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
Pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and therefore have one or more double covalent bonds; do not solidify at room temperature.
an ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts an electric current