What caused the Middle Ages to begin?
The Roman Empire collapsed because of a series of political, economic, and social problems.
Economically, was Western Europe bankrupt with the collapse of Rome?
Yes, Western Europe was bankrupt.
During the Middle Ages why was trade limited and why were various localities isolated?
The barbarian invasions limited trade and caused areas to be isolated.
In Medieval Europe, what social class all but disappeared?
The merchants almost all but disappeared.
What was the united, Western Europe under the authority of the Church called?
It was called Christendom.
Because of a lack of any real political authority, who usurped all authority?
The Pope was able to usurp authority.
What were the Crusades?
The Crusades were an attempt by Western Europe to assert authority in the Middle Ages.
What was the first free group of peasants?
Artisans (skilled workers) were the first free group of peasants.
What caused the social status of merchants to rise drastically?
As European goods became demanded, the social class of the merchants rose.
What political concept formed at the end of the civil wars in the Late Middle Ages?
The concept of monarchies formed.
As the High Middle Ages continued, the absolute authority of what group and what single person dwindled?
The authority of Lords and the Pope began to dwindle.
What 3 key things did Burckhardt see form in the birth of the modern era?
Antiquity, Secularism, Individulism
During the Renaissance, economic development was a continuation of what?
The Middle Ages (1250-1500)
During the Renaissance, political development was a continuation of what?
Urban society of Northern Italy
During the Renaissance, social development was a continuation of what?
The increasing power of the upper class and a weakening of lower class
What was the Hansa (Hanseatic League)?
A commercial and military association of Northern German coastal towns formed in the hopes of attracting economic attention of the Northern Italians.
According to Castiglione, what values should a noble possess?
Endowments such as talent and impeccable grace; Physically Educated as well as in classical education or the arts, and; Follow Morals and Ethics
What was the concept that an individual can become a well-rounded and beneficial person to society through the humanities?
Who was the first Spanish king to assert authority in the 15th century during the Italian Wars?
Ferdinand of Aragon
Who was the ruler of Milan who invited Charles VIII into Italy in hopes of extending his power?
Why did Italy never form a nation-state?
They had great prosperity economically during the Commercial Revolution.
Who was the "patriarch" of the ruling family of Florence that held power throughout the 15th century?
Who was a High Renaissance architect who worked on the dome of St. Peter's Basilica as well as the Tempietto?
What German artist introduced Italian styles of painting in his self-portrait, as well as his wood cuts such as "The Adoration"?
Who was the "Father of Humanism"? He studied classical Greek and Latin as well as introduced the concept of emotion in his "Sonnets to Laura"
Who was the Flemish painter who mastered the art of oil paint in his Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride?
His patron, the Medici family, encouraged his study and establishment of modern Neo-Platonism and Hermeticism.
Who was the "Father of Modern History"? He wrote the History of Florence and the History of Italy and identified patterns.
His moveable type printing press was the gateway for merchants to secularize society by gaining control of European media.
His School of Athens is an excellent example of Classical painting of the High Renaissance. He foreshadows the Late Renaissance by use of exaggeration and pudginess in his Madonna series.
His The Prince may have given future rulers a realistic guide at establishing their will : "Do good when possible; do evil when necessary"
What Flemish painter brought a sense of worth to peasantry in his paintings such as Children at Play and The Beggers?
His book New Cicero identified "Classical Latin" as well as the foundations of civic humanism.
He was the "Divine One" who mastered the High Renaissance sculpture with works such as La Pieta and David.
Even though his Mona Lisa and The Last Supper are perfect examples of High Renaissance art, his true genius was identified in his studies of engineering and anatomy.
What Early Renaissance architect completed the Church at San Lorenzo and the dome in the Cathedral of Florence?
Why was the purpose of religious painting/sculpture?
Creators glorified Catholicism not because of pious honor, but fear of damnation over sin of pride.
What 4 things caused the Renaissance to diffuse to the North?
1) Warfare- northern conquests of Italy 2) Increased Trade 3) Northern Merchants sent children to schools in Italy 4) Guttenberg's Printing Press
How did the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance?
The Northern Renaissance emphasized critical thinking within society and religion. Also, Christian Humanism was developed.
Who was a French humanist that authored Gargantua and hoped to establish a Utopian society?
What were the 3 phases of the Italian Renaissance?
1) Early- Florence 2) High- Papal States 3)Late-Spain
What was the positive political impact of the Hundred Years' War on France?
France became a nation-state
In the 1450s England broke out into a civil war called the War of the Roses. Who gained victory over the York Family?
What were the two Spanish Christian Kingdoms that gained momentum in the Late Middle Ages?
Castile and Aragon
What was a major problem of the Holy Roman Empire?
They never developed a strong monarchial authority
In the year 1453, the Ottoman Empire ended the Byzantine Empire by capturing what city?
Why was centralization in Eastern Europe states nearly impossible?
There were no defensive borders and there was constant warfare.