Stages in Conservation of History
|Pragmatic resource conservation|| A belief that resources should be used "for the greatest good, for the greatest number for the longest time" (Gifford Pinchot).|
The first principle of conservation is development and use of the natural resources now existing on this continent for the benefit of the people who live here now.
|Moral and aesthetic nature preservation|| A belief that we should use land with love and respect because "land is a community to which we belong" (Aldo Leopold). |
Biocentric preservation was a motive for environmental protection used by John Muir because "it emphasized the fundamental right of other organisms to exist and to pursue their own interests" (John Muir).
|Growing concern about health and ecological damage caused by pollution|| Identifying environmental issues (pollution, resource problems, ect.), and working together to correct and restore the environment back to a healthy state; this is called ENVIRONMENTALISM.|
Ex. "Increasingly dangerous smog attacks in Britain led, in 1880, to formation of a national Fog and Smoke Committee to combat this problem"
|Global environmental citizenship||The world, all life forms that inhabit it, are one. As Marshal McLuhan said in the 1960s, we are a "global village". As in a village we are connected in various ways. Events that occur on the other side of the globe have profound and immediate effects on our lives.|
|John Muir||Moral and aesthetic nature preservation -|
Muir argued that nature deserves to exist for its own sake, regardless of its usefulness to us. Muir fought long and hard for establishment of Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks. Muir also help President Roosevelt establish the framework of major national environmental issues.
|President Theodore Roosevelt||Pragmatic resource conservation - |
Moved the Forest Service out of the corruption-filled Interior Department of Agriculture. He put resource management on an honest, rational, and scientific basis for the first time in our history. Together with naturalists and activists Roosevelt helped establish the framework of our national forest, park, and wildlife refuge systems, passed game protection laws, and tried to stop some of the most flagrant abuses of the public domain
|Gifford Pinchot||Pragmatic resource conservation - |
Together with naturalists and activists Pinchot helped establish the framework of our national forest, park, and wildlife refuge systems, passed game protection laws, and tried to stop some of the most flagrant abuses of the public domain. In 1908, Pinchot organized and chaired the White House Conference on Natural Resources.
|Aldo Leopold|| Moral and aesthetic nature preservation -|
In 1935, bought a small farm in Wisconsin and rebuilt the land and building and created a writing refuge called the "A Sand Country Almanac." Together with Bob Marshall and two others, Leopold was a founder of the Wilderness Society.
|Rachel Carson|| Growing concern about health and ecological damage caused by pollution -|
Carson publication of "Silent Spring" in 1962 awakened the public to the threats of pollution and toxic chemicals to humans as well as other species.
|How is poverty and environmentalism linked?||Policymakers are becoming aware that eliminationg poverty and protecting our common environment are inextricably interlinked because the world's poorest people are both the victims and the agents of environmental degradation. The poorest people are often forced to meet short-term survival needs at the cost of long-term sustainability|
|What is the relationship between wealth and environmentalism?||The richer the country the better conditions for living the inhabitants have. Wealthier countries have better water, sanitation, infant mortality, ect. The average individual in the highest-income countries has an annual income nearly 100 times that of those in the lowest-income nations.|
|sustainable development||A real increase in well-being and standard of life for the average person that can be maintained over the long-term without degrading the environment or compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.|