micro lecture chpt 4 part 2

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periplasmic space

Between outer membrane and cell membrane

negative

The periplasmic space is a zone between the plasma membrane and the outer membrane of the cell wall of gram ____ bacteria.

periplasm, digestive

Periplasmic Space:
-Contains peptidoglycan and ____
-Contains water, nutrients, and substances secreted by the cell, such as _____ enzymes and proteins involved in transport

phospholipid bilayer

Prokaryotic Cell Membranes:
-Referred to as ____ ____; composed of lipids and associated proteins

half

Prokaryotic Cell Membranes: :
-Approximately ____ the membrane is composed of proteins that act as recognition proteins, enzymes, receptors, carriers, or channels

integral

Prokaryotic Cell Membranes: PROTEIN
-A protein molecule (or assembly of proteins) that is permanently attached or firmly anchored in the plasma membrane via its hydrophobic domains interacting with the membrane phospholipids.

peripheral

Prokaryotic Cell Membranes: PROTEIN
-A protein that temporarily adheres to the biological membrane, either to the lipid bilayer or to integral proteins by a combination of hydrophobic, electrostatic, and other non-covalent interactions.

glycoprotein

Prokaryotic Cell Membranes: PROTEIN
-Proteins with covalently attached sugar units, either bonded via the OH group of serine or threonine O glycosylated) or through the amide NH2 of asparagine (N glycosylated)

fluid mosaic model

describes current understanding of membrane structure

hydrophobic

Fluid Mosaic Model:

-The plasma membrane is described to be fluid because of its _____ integral components such as lipids and membrane proteins that move laterally or sideways throughout the membrane. That means the membrane is not solid, but more like a 'fluid'.

macromolecules

Fluid Mosaic Model:
-The membrane is depicted as mosaic because like a mosaic that is made up of many different parts the plasma membrane is composed of different kinds of ______ , such as integral proteins, peripheral proteins, glycoproteins, phospholipids, glycolipids, and in some cases cholesterol, lipoproteins.

polar

Water is a ____ molecule.

dissolve

Many biologically important molecules are POLAR and can ______ in water.

70,90

Microbial cells are ___ to ____% water

lipids

____ are non-polar molecules.

selectively permeable

Plasma Membrane Function is to be _____ _____ and for breakdown of nutrients and energy production.

selectively permeability

Selective barrier for materials to enter/exit cell

size, solubility, transporter molecules

Permeability depends on what three things?

disinfectants, antibiotics

Anticrobials Targeting Plasma Membrane include which two main groups?

alcohols, detergents, sanitizers

Anticrobials Targeting Plasma Membrane:
-DISINFECTANTS
* _____
* _____
* Quaternary ammonium compounds
* Acid-anionic _______

polymyxins

Anticrobials Targeting Plasma Membrane:
- ANTIBIOTICS
* include __________ which is in Neosporin.

phospholipids

Antimicrobials targeting the plasma membrane will disrupt ______.

concentration gradient

Difference in concentration on two sides of a membrane

greater, lesser

Concentration Gradient; substances naturally move from ____ to _____concentration

passive, active

What are the two major types of concentration gradients?

passive

Type of concentration gradient:
-moves from high to low conc; no energy/ATP required

active

Type of concentration gradient:
-moves from low to high conc; energy required

simple , facilitated, osmosis

Name the three passive processes.

simple diffusion

PASSIVE PROCESS
-Net movement of molecules from high to low concentration
- Stops at equilibrium

facilitated diffusion

PASSIVE PROCESS
-Transport of substances across a biological membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration by means of a carrier molecule. Since the substances move along the direction of their concentration gradients, energy is not required

osmosis

PASSIVE PROCESS
-Net movement of solvent (usually H2O) across selectively permeable membrane
-Movement follows the Concentration gradient for solvent

osmotic pressure

Pressure required to prevent the movement of water into a solution containing some solutes
-Stops the flow

isotonic

SOLUTIONS:
No net movement of water

hypotonic

SOLUTIONS:
Water moves into the cell.Could cause lysis

hypertonic

SOLUTIONS:
Water moves out of the cell, causing plasmolysis.

protein, outside, inside

Active Transport
-Requires specific carrier ____
-Usually from ____ to ____ cell
-May occur AGAINST cell gradient

prokaryotes, altered

Group Translocation
-Active process
-Only in ____
-Substance is ____ during transport

cytoplasm

Substance of cell within plasma membrane

water

CYTOPLASM:
- 80% ____
Also contains proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, inorganic ions

nuclear area, ribosomes, inclusions

CYTOPLASM STRUCTURES:
-Name the 3 main

nucleoid

Nuclear area on prokaryotes AKA

one, membrane

NUCLEAR AREA/NUCLEOID:
-______ bacterial chromosome
-Circular dsDNA
-Essential info
-No _____ surrounding

independent, nonessential

PLASMIDS:
-Small circular dsDNA molecules
-5-100 genes/plasmid
-____ of chromosome (location, replication)
- relatively _____ info
-Antibiotic resistance, toxin tolerance, special enzymes
-Tool in biotechnology

structurally

Ribosomes:
-Prokaryotic _____ different from Eukaryotic ribosomes
70S

rna, protein

Ribosomes:
Small round particles in a cell made up of ___ and ___ that are primarily involved in the assembly of proteins by translating messenger RNA (a process called translation).

antimicrobials

Ribosomes:
-Specific target of ______
*Interfere with bacterial protein synthesis

id, lipids

Inclusions:
-Can be used to aid in ______
-Metachromatic granules, polysaccharides, ______, sulfur carboxysomes, gas, magnetosomes

inclusions

Material held inside a cell, often consisting of reserve deposits.

inclusions

Geese using the earth's magnetic field during migration is an example of what cellular structures?

endospore

Specialized "resting" formed inside some bacteria.

Clostridium and Bacillus

Gram+ bacteria forming endospores include which two?

coxiella

Gram - bacteria forming endospores include which one? (the exception)

nutrient

Formation of endospores triggered by _____ deficiency:
-Carbon, nitrogen, etc

spore coat

An endospore is a highly durable dehydrated cell with _____ ____.

adverse, millions

An Endospore:
-More resistant to _____ conditions
*Extreme heat, dehydration, chemicals, radiation
-Can survive ____ of years

no

Is an endospore a reproductive type of formation?

one

How many endospores can a bacteria make in their lifetime?

diagnostic

Endospores:
-Locations with in cell are ______.

germination

Endospore; return to vegetative state.

physical, chemical

Endospore germination is trigger by _____ or ____ damage.

processing, freezing

Endospores carry an importance to the food and medical industry for the following reason:
-Resistance to killing
* Which allows for food ____, heating, ____, dessication, chemicals, radiation, etc.

flagella, cilia

What are the two motility structures on Eukaryotes?

flagella

Eukaryote motility:
-Few, long in relation to cell; whip like

cilia

Eukaryote motility:
- numerous, short; hair like

slightly

Motility structures on eukaryotes ____ different than prokaryotes.

peptidoglycan, simple

Cell wall:
-Most Euk have cell wall, with no ______.
-more ____ than prokaryotes

chitin, cellulose, polysaccharides

Cell wall:
-Fungi, invertebrates: ____
-Plants & algae: ____
-Yeast: _____

no

Cell Wall:
-Protozoans/animal cells: _____ cell wall
*Pellicle
*Glycocalyx

pellicle, glycocalyx

Instead of having cell wall, protozoans and animal cells have which two things?

similar, proteins

Eukaryotic Plasma Membrane:
-Very _____ to Prokaryotes
- Different ____

cell, bacterial

Eukaryotic Plasma Membrane:
-Carbohydrates
*Receptor sites, cell to __ recognition, ____ attachment sites

osmotic

Eukaryotic Plasma Membrane:
-Sterols
*Resistance against ____ pressure

sterol

Any steroid-based alcohol having a hydrocarbon (aliphatic) side-chain of 8-10 carbons at the 17-beta position and a hydroxyl group at the 3-beta position (therfore an alcohol).

cholesterol, ergosterols

Name 2 examples of sterols.
1) _______; buffer against temp. changes.
2) _______; present in fungi -- used in anti-fungal drugs.

group

Eukaryotic membrane transport:
-Simple & facilitated diffusion
-Osmosis
-Active transport
-No ___ transport

phagocytosis, pinocytosis

Eukaryotic membrane transport:
-Endocytosis includes what two kinds?

endocytosis

The process by which material is moved into a eukaryotic cell.

cytosol, cytoskeleton, motor proteins

Eukaryotic cytoplasm is composed of what 3 basic components?

cytosol

The fluid portion of cytoplasm

cytoskeleton

Micro filaments, intermediate filaments, and micro tubules that provide support and movement of eukaryotic cytoplasm.

cytoplasmic streaming

The movement of cytoplasm in a eukaryotic cell.

support, movement, transport

-Cytoskeleton
*Shape and ____
*Enables _____
*_____ of substances through cell

nutrients, move

-Cytoplasmic streaming
*movement of cytoplasm from one part of cell to another
*Distributes _____
*Helps to _____ cell

myosin

Name the example of motor proteins.

motor proteins

proteins that bind ATP and are able to move on a suitable substrate with concomitant ATP hydrolysis.

organelles

Membrane-bound structures with specific shapes and specialized functions with in eukaryotic cells.

nucleolus

A area in a eukaryotic nucleus where rRNA is synthesized.

nucleus

Which organelle?
- Controls cell activities
- Contains the hereditary material of the cell

endoplasmic reticulum

Which organelle?
- Carries materials through cell
- Aids in making proteins

golgi complex

Which organelle?
- Modify proteins made by the cells
- Package & export proteins

lysosomes

Which organelle?
- Breaks down larger food molecules into smaller molecules
- Digests old cell parts

vacuoles

Which organelle?
- Store food, water, metabolic & toxic wastes
- Store large amounts of food or sugars in plants

mitochondria

Which organelle?
- Breaks down sugar (glucose) molecules to release energy
- Site of aerobic cellular respiration

chloroplasts

Which organelle?
- Uses energy from sun to make food (glucose) for the plant
- Process called photosynthesis
- Release oxygen

double

MITOCHONDRIA
-Spherical/rod shaped

-____-membraned

-Site of cellular respiration
*Inner membrane
*"Powerhouse of the cell"

type, binary fission

MITOCHONDRIA
- Number per cell depends on cell ____

- Self-replicating
* via ____ _____

- Contain own DNA and ribosomes
circular DNA, 70S ribosomes

chloroplast

Membrane-enclosed structures containing
chlorophyll and photosynthetic enzymes

binary fission

CHLOROPLAST
- Self-replicating
* via ____ _____

- Contain own DNA and ribosomes
circular DNA, 70S ribosomes

endosymbiotic theory

Explains the origin of eukaryotes from prokaryotes

organelles

Endosymbiotic theory
-Similarities between eukaryotic ____ & prokaryotes
*Size/shape
*Circular DNA
*Organelle division independent of host
* 70S ribosomes

cell wall, mitochondria, chloroplasts

ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY
-Larger bacterial cell lost ___ ___ and engulfed a smaller bacteria
-Small bacteria became ____ and _____

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