A European monarch that came close to matching Suleyman's power. He was a Hapsburg he inherited Spain, Spain's American colonies, parts of Italy, and lands in Austria and the Netherlands. As the Holy Roman emperor he ruled much of Germany.
Charles V's son. Inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the Amrerican colonies. He was shy and serious as well as deeply religous. He did not allow anyone to help him and was very hard working. He was very suspicious, and trusted no one for long. He was very aggressive for the sake of his empire. He seized the Portuguese kingdom (and their strongholds in Africa, India, and the East Indies). He belived his duty was to defend Catholicism against the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire and the Protestants of Europe.
Kings or queens who held all of the power within their states' boundaries. Their goal was to control every aspect of society. They believed in divine right. They only answered to God, not his or her subjects.
The idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth. An absolute monarch only answered to God, not his or her subjects.
Henry IV (of Navarre)*
Descended from the medieval king Louis IX. He was robust, athletic, and handome. Descended the French throne with both Catherine and her son died in 1598. He became the first king of the Bourbon dynasty in France. As king he was decisive, fearless in battle, and a clear politican. Many Catholics (including the people of Paris) opposed him so he chose to give up Protestantism and become a Catholic. He declared that Huguenots could live in peace in France and set up their own houses of worship in some citites (Edict of Nantes), He decoted his reign to rebuilding France and its prosperity. He restored the french monarch to a strong position. In 1610 he was stabbed to death because of his religous compromises.
Edict of Nantes
In 1598 Henry IV declared that Huguenots could live in peace in France and set up thier own houses of worship in some cities.
The strong minister appointed to make up for Louis XIII's weaknesses. For several years, he was a hardworking leaader of the Catholic church in France. Although he tried to lead accoriding to moral principles, he was also ambitious and enjoyed exercising his authority. He took two steps to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy. 1.) he moved against Huguenots. He belived that Protestantism often was an excuse for political conspiracies against the Catholic king. He didn't take away their rights to worship he forbade Protestant citites to have walls. 2.) He sought to weaken the noble's power by ordering them to take down their fortified castles. He increased the power of government agents who came in from the middle class. He wanted to make France the strongest state in Europe so involved France in the Thirty Years' War.
The most powerful ruler in French history. In his view he and the state were one. He was only four when he began his reign. When he became king in 1643 the true ruler of France was Richeliue's successor Cardinal Mazarin. After Mazarin died the 22 year old Louis took control of the government himself. He weakened the pwer of the nobles by excluding them from his councils. He increased the power of intendants. He devoted himself to helping France attain econimic, political, and cultural brilliance. He was assisted in achieving these goals by his minister of finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert. In 1685 he cancled the Edict of Nantes which took away France's housands of Huguenots artisans and business. He spent a fortune to surround himself with luxury. He also kept the nobles in the palce of Versaille. This increased royal authority in two ways. It made the nobility totally dependent on Louis. It also took them from their homes, thereby giving more power to the intendants. Under him france was the most powerful country in Europe. He decided invaded the Spanish netherlands in an effort to expand France's boundaries. He gained 12 town. He then kept invading diffrent countries. To fund these wars he imposed new taxes.
The successor of Cardial Richelieu. He was the "ruler" while Louis XIV was to young to rule 1648. His greatest triumph was in 1648 with the ending of the Thirty Years' War. Many people in France (mostly nobles) hated him because he increased tazes and strengthened the central government. From 1648 to 1653, violent anti him riots tore France apart. Sometimes the nobles threatened Louis XIV's life. He died in 1664
Government agents made whose power increased during the reign of Louis XIV. They collected taxes and administered justice. To keep their power under central control, Louis XIV made sure that local officials communicated regularly with him.
War of the Spanish Succession
In 1710, England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Prtugal, and several German and Italian states joined together to prevent the union of the French and Spanish thrones. The war went on until 1714. The Treaty of Utrecht was signed in that year. Under its terams Louis's grandson was allowed to remain king of Spain so long as the thrones of France and Spain were not united.
Thirty Years' War
A conflct ver religion and territory and power among European ruling families. It lasted from 1618 to 1648. During the first 1 years Hapsburg armies (Austria and Spain) put down the troops hired by Protestant princes. They put down the Czech uprising and defeated German protestants who supported the Czechs. In 1630 things changed when Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden and his army of 23,000 drove the Hapsburg armies out of northern Germany. Cardinals Richeliue and Mazarin of France dominated the remaining years of war. In 1635
Richeliue sent French troops to join the German and Swedish Protestants in their struggle against Hapsburg armies.
Peace of Westphalia
This ended the war. The treaty had these important consequences 1.) it weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria 2.) it strengthened France by awarding it German territory 3.) it made German princes independent of the Holy Roman emperor 4.) it ended religious wars in Europe 5.) it introduced a new method of peace negotiation whereby all participants meet to settle the problems of a war and decide the problems of a war and decide the terms of peace. (this is still used today)
Charles VI eldest daughter who was the heir to all his Hapsburg territories. All the leaders of Europe had to sign an agreement that they saw her as his heir to ensure she had a peaceful reign. Instead she faced years of war. Her main enemy was Prussia. She succeeded her father in 1740. Fredrick II underestimated her strenth and sent an army to occupy Silesia, which began the war of the Austrian Succession. When she made an aliance with France the Seven Years' War happened
Fredrick II (the great)*
A Prussian ruler. His father, Fredrick William worried that he was not harsh enough to rule becuase he loved music, philosophy, and poetry. In 1730 when he and a friend were caught trying to run away he was punished by watching his friends beheading. Despite this he followed his fathers military policies when he came to power. Though he softened some of his fathers laws. When he came to domestic affairs, he encouraged religous toleration and legal reform. He believed a ruler should be like a father to his people. He wanted Maria Theresa's Austrian land of Silesia, which bordered Prussia. He underestimated her strength because she was a woman. He was not able to advance any further than Silesia but he did gain Silensia.
War of Austrina Succession
In 1740 Fredrick II wanted the Austrian land of Silesia, which bordered Prussia. Silesia priduced iron ore, textiles, and food priducts. Fredrick underestimated Maria Theresa's strenth. He assumed that because she was a women she wasn't strong enough to defend her lands. So he sent his army to occupy Silesia which begun this war. Maria Theresa went to Hungary even though she had just given birth and aske dhte Hungarian nobles for help. They pledged to help her. Great Britain also joined Austria to fight France, which was Prussia's ally. Although she did stop Prussias aggression, she lost Silesia in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. With the gain of Silesia , prussia became a major European power.
Seven Years' War
Maria Theresa decided that the French kings werent Austria's chief enemies. She made an alliance with them. This resulted in a diplomatic revolution. When Fredrick heard of her actions, he signed a treaty with Britain-- Austria's former aly. Now Austria, France, Russia, and others were allied against Britain and Prussia. Now Austria and Prussia swtched allies and for the first time Russia was playing a role in European affairs. In 1756 Fredrick attacted Sacony and soon every European power was involved in was involved in this war. It was fought in Europe, India, and North America. This war didnt change the territorial sistuation in Europe.
Ivan IV (the terrible)*
Came to the Russian throne in 1533 when he was only three years old. The Boyars fought to control him. When he was 16 he seized power and crowned himself Czar. He was the first Czar to use it officially. He married Anastasia, related to the Romanovs. His "bad period" began after Anastasia died in 1560. He accused the boyars of poising his wife. He organized his own police force whose main duty ws to hunt down and muder people he considered a traitor. The members of this force dressed in black and rode black horses. Using his secret police he excecuted many boyars, their families, and the peasants who worked their lands. He seized the boyars' estates and gave them to a new class of nobles, who had to remain loyal to him or lose their land. In 1581 he killed his oldest son and heir. When he died three years later his weak son was left to rule.
Russia's landowning nobles that fought to control Ivan the Terrible when he was youg. Eventually Ivan excecuted most of them and gave there property to a new class of nobles.
Peter the Great*
A Czar of Russia. Aft first he shared his throne with his half brother but in 1696 he became the sole ruler of Russia. He was one of Russia's greatest reformers. When he came to power Russia still have boyars and serfs. In 1997 he embarked on the "Great Embassy". One of his goals was to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques. His goal of westernization was a way to make Russia stronger. He increased his powers as an absolute ruler. He decreased the powers of wealthy landowners. He then recruited men from lower-class families and promoted them to positions of authority and awarded them land. He modernized his army by hireing European officers to teach them European tactics. To pay for this he had to impose large taxes. To promote education he wanted a sea port. He fought Sweden to gain a piece of the baltic coast. They gained it and in 1703 he bagan building a new city. After his death in 1725 he made Russia a power to be reconded with in Europe.
Son of James I. Took the English throne in 1625. He always needed money partly because he was at war with both Spain and France. Whenever Parliament refused to give him the funds he would dissolve it. In 1628 when Parliamnet refused to grant him money. They refused to do so until he signed the Petition of the Right. After signing the petition he ignored it. In 1629 he dissolved Parliament and refused to call it back to session. To get money he imposed all kinds of fees and fines of his people. He offended Puritans by upholding the rituals of the Anglican Church. In addition he tried to force the Presbyterian Scots to accept a version of the Anglican prayer book. He wanted to force the Presbyterian Scots to accept a version of the Anglican prayer book. This caused the Scotts to rebel. To raise more moeny he called Parliament back into session. He tried to arrest the leaders but they escaped. This started a civil war.
Petition of Right
In 1628 Charles I called Parliament for money again. They refused to grant him any if he did not sign this document. The petition had four points 1.) He would not imprison subjects without due cause. 2.) He would not levy taxes without Parliament's consent. 3.) He would not house soldiers in private homes. 4.) He would not impose martial law in peacetime. After agreeing to the petition Charles ignored it but it set the idea that the law was higer than the king.
English Civil War
Lasted from 1642 to 1659. Those who remained loyal to Charles were called Royalists or Cavaliers and on the other side were Puritan supporters of Parliament. At first neither side could gain a lasting advantage. But by 1644 the Puritans found a general who could win. Oliver Crowmwell. In 1645 his New Model Army began defeating the Cavilers. In 1649 Cromwell and the Puritans brought Charles to tiral for treason against Parliamnet. They found him guilty and sentenced him to death.
In 1644 the Puritans enlisted him to be a general in the English Civil War. His Newq Model Army began defeating the Cavaliers. He now held the power of England. In 1649 he abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords. he established a commonwealth, a republican form of government. In 1653 he sent home the remaining members of Parliament. His associate John Lambert drafted a constition, the first written constitution of any modern European state. He put down a rebellion in Ireland. In England, he and the Puritans sought to reform society. They made laws that promoted Puritan morality and abolished activites they found sinful, such as the theater, sporting events, and dancing. Even though he was Puritan he favored religous toleration for all Christians except Catholics. He even allowed Jews to return to England. He ruled until his death in 1659.
The period of Charles II's rule over england, after the collapse of Oliver Crowmwell's government.
A document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment was legal.
The bloodless overthrow of the English king James II and his replacement by William and Mary.
A group of advisors or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions.
geo- and heliocenric theory
In the middle ages, the earth centered view of the universe in which scholars belived that the earth was an imovable object located at the center of the universe. The idea that the earth and the other plantes revolve around the sun.
a major change in european thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the stufdy of the natrual world began to characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
An Italian scientist who built on new theories about Astronomy. he learned that a Dutch lense maker had built an instrument that could enlarge far-off objects. He built his own telescope and used it to study the heavens in 1609. He published a small book called Starry Messenger, which described his astonishing observations. He noted that the earths moon has a rough uneven surface. His findings frightened both Catholic and Protestant leaders because they went against church teaching and authority. If people belived the church could be wrong about this, they could question other church teachings like that. In 1616 the church forced him to take back what he said.
a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypothosis.
An English scientist who helped bring together their breakthroughs under a single theory of motion. He studied mathematics and physics at Cambridge University. By the time he was 26 he was certain that all phycial objects were affected equally by the same forces. His great discovery was that the same force ruled motion of the plantes and all matter on earth and in space. In 1687 he published his ideas ina work called The Mathematical Princeples of Nature Philosophy. It was one of the most important scientific books ever written.
A Polish cleric who studied planetary movement for of the sun, moon, and planets for 25 years. His heliocentric theory did not completely explain why the planets orbited the way they did. he also knew that most scholars and clergy would reject his theory becuase it contradicted their teachings so he watied until the last year of his life to pubish his findings in his book "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies.
A brilliant mathmatician and assistant to Brahe who following Brahe's death continued his work. After studying his data he concluded that certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion. His laws showed that Copernicus's basic ideas were true. They demonstrated mathematically that the plantes revolve around the sun.
An English statesman and writer, had a passionate intrest in science. He believed that by better understanding the world, scientists would generate practical knowledge that would improve people's lives. In his writings he attacked medieval scholars for relying too heavily on the conclusion of Aristotle and other ancient thinkers. Instead of reasoning from abstract theories he urged scientist to experiment and then draw conclusions.
He belived that scientists needed to reject old assumptions and teachings. Rather than using experimentation, he relied of math and logic. He belived that everything should be doubted until proved by reason.
an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the princeples of reason and scientific method to all aspects of society.
social contract (Thomas Hobbes)
the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government.
A philosopher who held a positive view of human vature. He believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. As reasonable beings, they had the natural ability to govern their own affairs and to look after the welfare of society. He criticized absolute monarchy and favored the idea of self governance. He belived all people are born free and equal with 3 natural rights. Life, liberty, and prosperity.
one of a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment.
One of the most brilliant and influencial philosophes. His actual name was Francois Marie Arouet. He published more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy, and drama. He often used satire against his opponents. He made frequent targets of the clergy, the aristocracy, and the government. His shar ptongue made him enemies at the French court, and twice he was sent to prison. After his second stint in prison he was exiled from England for 2 years.
Baron de Montesquieu*
An influencial French writer who devoted himself to the study of political liberty. He belived that Britan was the best-governed and most ppolitically balanced counrty of his day. The British king andhis ministers held executive power. They carried out the laws of the state. The members of Parlimant hel judicial power. They interpreted the laws to see how each applied to a specific case. He called this division of power amond diffrent branches seperation of powers.
seperation of powers
The British king and his ministers held executive power. They carried out the laws of the state. The members of Parliament held legistlative power. They made the laws to see how each applied to a specific case.
A great philosophe who was passionately committed to individual freedom. The son of a poor Swiss watchmaker, he won recognition as a writer of essays. A strange, brillant, and controversial figure, he strongley disagreed with other Englightenment thinkers on many matters. Most philosophes belived that reason, science, and art would improve life for all people. he howeever argued that civilization corrupted people's natural goodness.
Belived by Rousseau that the only good government was one that was freely formed by the people and guided by the _________ of society.
An Italian philosophe who tuned his thoughts to the justice system. He belived that laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes. He regularly criticized common abuses of justice. They included torturing of witnesses and suspects, irregular proceedings in trials, and punishments that were arbitrary or that tortureshould never be used.
A persuasive women who published an essay called A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792. In the essay, she disagreed with Rousseau that women's education should be seondary to men's. She argued that women, like men, need education to become wirtueous and useful. She also urged women to enter the male- dominated ields of medicine and politics.
a social gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the Enlightenment.
The most influential of the salon hostesses. She helped finance the project of a leading philosophe named Denis Diderot.
relating to a grand, ornate style that characterized European painting, music, and architecture in the 1600s and early 1700s.
relating to a simple, elegant style (based on ideas and themes form acient Greece and Rome0 that characterzed the arts in Europe during the late 1700s.
One of the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects.
The most radical roayl reformer from Austria. He called himself "the first sevant of the state." From the begining of his reign, he made ic clear that his goal was to serve and strengthen his country. This attitude was clearly one that appealed to the philosophes.
Catherine II (the Great)*
The ruler most admired by the philosophes. She ruled Russia from 1762 to 796. The empress read the works of philosophes, and she exchanged many letters with the Volatire. She ruled with absolute authority but sought to reform Russia. She formed a comminssion to review Russias law. She presented a brilliant reforms based on the ideas of Montesquieu. She put in place limited reforms and did little to improve the life of the Russian peasants.
First Partition of Poland
In 1772 Russia, Prussia, and Austria each tried to assert their power over Poland. In 1772 these land-hungry neighbors each took a piece of Poland.