The component of language concerned with syntax, the rules by which words are arranged into sentences, and morphology, the use of grammatical markers indicating number, tense, case, person, gender, active or passive voice, and other meanings.
The use of grammatical markers indicating number, tense, case, person, gender, active or passive voice, and other meanings.
The component of language concerned with the rules governing the structure and sequence of speech sounds.
The component of language concerned with the rules for engaging in appropriate and effective communication.
The component of language that involves vocabulary - the way underlying concepts are expressed in words and word combinations.
The rules by which words are arranged into sentences.
Language acquisition device (LAD)
In Chomsky's theory, an innate system containing a universal grammar, or set of rules common to all languages, that permits children, once they have acquired sufficient vocabulary, to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion.
In Chomsky's theory of language development, a built-in storehouse of grammatical rules that applies to all human languages.
A structure located in the left frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex that supports grammatical processing and language production.
A language structure located in the left temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex that plays a role in comprehending word meaning.
Categorical speech perception
The tendency to perceive as identical a range of sounds that belong to the same phonemic class.
The smallest sound units that signal a change in meaning.
Child-directed speech (CDS)
A form of language adults use to speak to infants and toddlers, consisting of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, clear gestures to support verbal meaning, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts.
Repetition of consonant-vowel combinations in long strings, beginning around 6 months of age.
Pleasant vowel-like noises made by infants, beginning around 2 months of age.
A state in which child and caregiver attend to the same object or event and the caregiver labels what the child sees, which contributes to language development.
A preverbal communicative gesture in which the baby points to, touches, or holds up an object while looking at others to make sure they notice.
A preverbal communicative gesture in which the baby gets another person to do something by reaching, pointing, and often making sounds at the same time.
In language development, the words children understand. Distinguished from production.
In language development, the words and word combinations that children use. Distinguished from comprehension.
Children's ability to connect a new worth with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter.
A style of early language learning in which toddlers use language mainly to talk about their own and others' feelings and needs with an initial vocabulary emphasising social formulas and pronouns. Distinguished from referential style.
A style of early language learning in which toddlers use language mainly to label objects. Distinguished from expressive style.
An early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too broadly, to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate. Distinguished from underextension.
An early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too narrowly, to a smaller number of objects or events than is appropriate. Distinguished from overextension.
Mutual exclusivity bias
Children's assumption in early vocabulary growth that words refer to entirely separate (nonoverlapping) categories.
A special part of working memory that permits retention of speech-based information and, thus, supports early vocabulary development.
In early language development, children's tendency to rely heavily on shape as a distinguishing property when learning names for objects.
In language development, children's discovery of word meanings by observing how words are used in syntax, or the structure of sentences.
Emergentist coalition model
The view that word-leaning strategies emerge out of children's efforts to decipher language, during which they draw on a coalition of perceptual, social, and linguistic cues that shift in importance with age.
Young children's two-word utterances that, like a telegram, focus on high-content words while omitting smaller, less important ones.
In language development, small markers that change the meaning of sentences, as in "John's dog" and "he is eating."
Extension of regular morphological rules to words that are exceptions.
In language development, children's reliance on semantics, or word meanings, to figure out sentence structure.
Adult responses that elaborate on children's speech, increasing its complexity.
Adults responses that restructure children's grammatically incorrect speech into correct form.
In conversation, what a speaker means to say, even if the form of the utterance is not perfectly consistent with it.
Referential communication skills
The ability to produce clear verbal messages and to recognise when the meaning of others' messages is unclear.
A conversational strategy in which a speaker initiates a change of topic gradually by modifying the focus of discussion.
A conversational strategy in which the speaker, after commenting on what has just been said, also adds a request to get the partner to respond again.
Language adaptations to social expectations.
The ability to think about language as a system.
A strategy in which bilingual individuals produce an utterance in one language that contains one or more "guest" words from the other, without violating the grammar of either language.