PSS250 Chapter 9

43 terms by missshell 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Grammar

The component of language concerned with syntax, the rules by which words are arranged into sentences, and morphology, the use of grammatical markers indicating number, tense, case, person, gender, active or passive voice, and other meanings.

Morphology

The use of grammatical markers indicating number, tense, case, person, gender, active or passive voice, and other meanings.

Phonology

The component of language concerned with the rules governing the structure and sequence of speech sounds.

Pragmatics

The component of language concerned with the rules for engaging in appropriate and effective communication.

Semantics

The component of language that involves vocabulary - the way underlying concepts are expressed in words and word combinations.

Syntax

The rules by which words are arranged into sentences.

Language acquisition device (LAD)

In Chomsky's theory, an innate system containing a universal grammar, or set of rules common to all languages, that permits children, once they have acquired sufficient vocabulary, to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion.

Universal grammar

In Chomsky's theory of language development, a built-in storehouse of grammatical rules that applies to all human languages.

Broca's area

A structure located in the left frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex that supports grammatical processing and language production.

Wernicke's area

A language structure located in the left temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex that plays a role in comprehending word meaning.

Categorical speech perception

The tendency to perceive as identical a range of sounds that belong to the same phonemic class.

Phonemes

The smallest sound units that signal a change in meaning.

Child-directed speech (CDS)

A form of language adults use to speak to infants and toddlers, consisting of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, clear gestures to support verbal meaning, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts.

Babbling

Repetition of consonant-vowel combinations in long strings, beginning around 6 months of age.

Cooing

Pleasant vowel-like noises made by infants, beginning around 2 months of age.

Joint attention

A state in which child and caregiver attend to the same object or event and the caregiver labels what the child sees, which contributes to language development.

Protodeclarative

A preverbal communicative gesture in which the baby points to, touches, or holds up an object while looking at others to make sure they notice.

Protoimperative

A preverbal communicative gesture in which the baby gets another person to do something by reaching, pointing, and often making sounds at the same time.

Comprehension

In language development, the words children understand. Distinguished from production.

Production

In language development, the words and word combinations that children use. Distinguished from comprehension.

Fast-mapping

Children's ability to connect a new worth with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter.

Expressive style

A style of early language learning in which toddlers use language mainly to talk about their own and others' feelings and needs with an initial vocabulary emphasising social formulas and pronouns. Distinguished from referential style.

Referential style

A style of early language learning in which toddlers use language mainly to label objects. Distinguished from expressive style.

Overextension

An early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too broadly, to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate. Distinguished from underextension.

Underextension

An early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too narrowly, to a smaller number of objects or events than is appropriate. Distinguished from overextension.

Mutual exclusivity bias

Children's assumption in early vocabulary growth that words refer to entirely separate (nonoverlapping) categories.

Phonological store

A special part of working memory that permits retention of speech-based information and, thus, supports early vocabulary development.

Shape bias

In early language development, children's tendency to rely heavily on shape as a distinguishing property when learning names for objects.

Syntactic bootstrapping

In language development, children's discovery of word meanings by observing how words are used in syntax, or the structure of sentences.

Emergentist coalition model

The view that word-leaning strategies emerge out of children's efforts to decipher language, during which they draw on a coalition of perceptual, social, and linguistic cues that shift in importance with age.

Telegraphic speech

Young children's two-word utterances that, like a telegram, focus on high-content words while omitting smaller, less important ones.

Grammatical morphemes

In language development, small markers that change the meaning of sentences, as in "John's dog" and "he is eating."

Overregularisation

Extension of regular morphological rules to words that are exceptions.

Semantic bootstrapping

In language development, children's reliance on semantics, or word meanings, to figure out sentence structure.

Expansions

Adult responses that elaborate on children's speech, increasing its complexity.

Recasts

Adults responses that restructure children's grammatically incorrect speech into correct form.

Illocutionary intent

In conversation, what a speaker means to say, even if the form of the utterance is not perfectly consistent with it.

Referential communication skills

The ability to produce clear verbal messages and to recognise when the meaning of others' messages is unclear.

Shading

A conversational strategy in which a speaker initiates a change of topic gradually by modifying the focus of discussion.

Turnabout

A conversational strategy in which the speaker, after commenting on what has just been said, also adds a request to get the partner to respond again.

Speech registers

Language adaptations to social expectations.

Metalinguistic awareness

The ability to think about language as a system.

Code switching

A strategy in which bilingual individuals produce an utterance in one language that contains one or more "guest" words from the other, without violating the grammar of either language.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set