Thinking about the characteristics of the self and of other people.
Identification of the self as a physically unique being, distinct from other people and objects.
Classification of the self according to prominent ways in which people differ, such as age, sex, physical characteristics, and goodness and badness. Develops between 18 and 30 months.
A view of the self as persisting over time.
The child's life-story narrative, or autobiographical memory, constructed from conversations with adults about the past.
Belief-desire theory of mind
The more sophisticated theory of mind that emerges around age 4, in which children understand that both beliefs and desires determine behaviour.
Desire theory of mind
The theory of mind of 2- to 3-year-olds, who assume that people always act in ways consistent with their desires but do not understand the influence on behaviour of interpretive mental states, such as beliefs.
Awareness of the self's private thoughts and imaginings.
The set of attributed, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is.
Evaluations of one's own abilities, behaviour, and appearance in relation to those of others.
A blend of what we imagine important people in our lives think of us, crucial to developing a self-concept based on personality traits.
The aspect of self-concept that involves judgments about one's own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments.
The tendency to persist at challenging tasks.
Common, everyday explanations for the causes of behaviour.
Entity view of ability
The view that ability is a fixed characteristic that cannot be improved through effort; associated with learned helplessness. Distinguished from incremental view of ability.
Incremental view of ability
The view that ability can be improved through effort; associated with mastery-oriented attributions. Distinguished from entity view of ability.
The view that success is due to external factors, such as luck, while failure is due to low ability, which cannot be improved by trying hard. Distinguished from mastery-oriented attributions.
Attributions that credit success to ability, which can be improved by trying hard, and that credit failure to insufficient effort. Distinguished from learned helplessness.
An intervention that uses adult feedback to encourage learned-helplessness children to believe they can overcome failure through effort.
A well-organised conception of the self that defines who one is, what one values, and what directions one wants to pursue in life.
The identity status of individuals who have explored and committed themselves to self-chosen values and goals. Distinguished from identity moratorium, identity foreclosure, and identity diffusion.
The identity status of individuals who do not engage in exploration and are not committed to values and goals. Distinguished from identity achievement, identity moratorium, and identity foreclosure.
The identity status of individuals who do not engage in exploration but, instead, are committed to ready-made values and goals chosen for them by authority figures. Distinguished from identity achievement, identity moratorium, and identity diffusion.
The identity status of individuals who are exploring, but not ret committed to, self-chosen values and goals. Distinguished from identity achievement, identity foreclosure, and identity diffusion.
Psychological distress resulting from conflict between an individual's minority culture and the host culture.
A sense of ethnic group membership, and attitudes and feelings associated with that membership, as an enduring aspect of the self.
The identity constructed by individuals who explore and adopt values from both their family's subculture and the dominant culture.
The way individuals size up the attributes of people with whom they are familiar.
The capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling.
Social problem solving
Generating and applying strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements, resulting in outcomes that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self.