The five parallel lines on which we write music.
Two staves, one in the treble clef and one in the bass clef, connected by a curly brace; typically found in piano music.
A symbol that appears on the far left of every staff to designate which line or space represents which pitch (in which octave).
A C-clef positioned on a staff so that the middle line indicates middle C (C4); typically read by violas.
On a staff, the bass claf (also known as the F-clef) rests on the line that represents F3; its two dots surround the F3 line; typically read by bassoons, cellos, basses, and piano left hand.
A movable clef that may be placed on a staff to identify any one of the five lines as middle C.
A C-clef positioned on a staff so that the fourth line from the bottom indicates middle C; typically read by bassoons, cellos, and tenor trombones in their higher registers.
On a staff, the treble clef denotes the line for G4, by means of the end of its curving line; typically read by flutes, clarinets, oboes, horns, sopranos, altos, and piano right hand.
A musical symbol that appears before a note to raise or lower its pitch chromatically.
An accidental that lowers a pitch by one half step.
An accidental that lowers a pitch two half steps (or one whole step) below its letter name.
An accidental that raises a pitch a half step.
An accidental that raises a pitch two half steps (or one whole step) above its letter name.
The degree of loudness or softness in playing. Common terms are pianissimo, piano, mezzo piano, mezzo forte, forte, and fortissimo.
Different letter names for the same pitch or pitch class.
The musical space between a pitch and its next-closest pitch on the keyboard.
The combination of two adjacent half steps.
The musical space between two pitches or pitch classes.
Extra lines drawn through the stems and/or note heads to designate a pitch when the notation extends above or below a staff.
The distance of eight musical steps.
The concept that two pitches an octave apart are functionally equivalent.
A tone sounding in a particular octave.
Notes an octave (or several octaves) apart that share the same name. Pitch class names assume octave and enharmonic equivalence.