Health, Wellness, and Illness

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Nightingale

______ defines health as: State of well-being and using every power the individual possesses to the fullest extent.

World Health Organization (WHO)

_______defines health as: a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

American Nurses Association (ANA)

dynamic state of being in which the development and behavioral potential of an individual is realized to the fullest extent possible. (similar to Maslow's Heirarchy of needs).

personal definitions of health

individual perception, free of symtomps, being active, good spirits, and etc.

Factors influencing one's definition of health:

-Developmental status, -Social and cultural influences, -Previous experiences, -Expectations of self, -Perceptions of self

Seven components of wellness & well-being

environmental, occupational, intellectual, spiritual, physical, emotional, and social

Basic aspects of wellness:

self-responsibility, ultimate goal, dynamic growing process, daily decision making, whole being of the individual

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

normal= 17-18 mg/dL; - INCREASED: starvation, high protein intake, severe dehydration; -DECREASED: malnutrition, overhydration

total lymphocyte count

reflects an individual's immune status. This is directly caused by impaired nutritional status. (means immune deficiency is caused by poor nutrition)

creatinine

normal= 0.4 - 1.5 mg/dL; -INCREASED: dehydration; -DECREASED: reduction in total muscle mass, severe malnutrition

serum albumin

normal= 3.5 - 5.5 g/dL; -DECREASED: malnutrition (prolonged protein depletion), malabsorption

serum albumin

most abundant serum protein; makes up 50% of our body's circulating proteins. However, protein albumin is one of those things that other conditions besides malnutrition can cause it to decrease. The person may have an infection, liver disease, cancer, and etc.

hematocrit

normal ranges- FEMALES: 36 - 48; -MALES: 42 - 54; Is 3 x hemoglobin; -DECREASED: anemia; -INCREASED: dehydration

hemoglobin

normal ranges -FEMALE: 12 - 16; -MALES: 14 - 18; -DECREASED: anemia

additional calorie requirements:

-Age/growth, -Activity, -Gender, -Physiologic state, -Lean body mass, -Body temperature, -Emotional state

co-habiting

individuals who choose to live together for a variety of reasons. -relationships, financial need, or changing values.

single adult

do not live with others, but they are part of a family of origin. May regard pet as family

nuclear family (traditional family)

composed of two parents and their children. Parents may be heterosexual or homosexual, are often married or in committed relationship. All members live in same house until the children leave home as young adults.

extended family

relatives such as aunts, uncles, and grandparents

blended family

is also a traditional family, formed when parents bring unrelated children from previous relationships together to form a new family.

single-parent family

may be separated, divorced, widowed, or never married.

Functions of the Family: Physically

______ the family provides a safe, comfortable environment necessary for growth, development, and rest or recuperation

Functions of the Family: Economically

_______the family provides financial aid to family members and also helps meet monetary needs of society

Functions of the Family: Socialization

Through ______, the family teaches, transmits beliefs, values, attitudes, and coping mechanisms; provides feedback; and guides problem solving

Functions of the Family: Affective and coping

The ____ ____ ____ function of the family involves providing emotional comfort to family members.

Functions of the Family: Reproductive

The ________ function of the family is raising children.

teaching

is a system of activities intended to produce learning.

Meal time for clients:

-Assess level of consciousness, -Elevate HOB, -Call button available, -Set up food as needed, -Assess how client tolerated: amt. eaten, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, etc.

Providing client meals

-Check chart for diet order, -Assist w/personal needs, -Offer to help wash hands, -Comfortable position, -Clear overbed table, -Check tray for completeness, -Assist with feeding if needed, -For blind, identify placement of food, -If client is not eating notify nurse in charge.

restrictive diet

ordered to meet the dietary needs related to a disease. Usually it's a chronic disease such as: Cardiac, and diabetes.

diet as tolerated

ordered when the client can tolerate certain foods; the nurse in conjunction with client can make the decision

soft diet

foods that are soft and have reduced fiber content, because those things require less energy for digestion. (for people who difficulty chewing)

full liquid diet

all clear liquids and fluids that become liquid at room temperature. (ice cream, yogurt, sherbet)

clear liquid diet

liquids that lack residue; any liquid that is see-through. Ex: apple juice, cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, broth, coffee w/no milk, jello, soft drinks

Types of 24-Hour urine tests

-Creatinine, -Blood urea nitrogen

How to identify clients at risk for poor nutrition:

-Diet hx, -Medication, -Medical hx, -Those with increased demands to meet metabolic needs, -NPO

Ways to assess nutritional status:

-Anthropometric measurements, -Biochemical Data: (hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum proteins, total lymphocyte count), -24 hour urine test: Creatinine & BUN, -Observation of nutritional assessment, -Diet hx

Physical fitness

-body performs to its potential, -Look and feel better, -Ability to do daily tasks vigorously, with energy left over, -Involves performance of heart, lungs, and muscles, -Influences mental alertness

Maslow's Hierarchy

-PHYSIOLOGIC: air, food, water, shelter, rest & sleep, activity, and temp., -SAFETY & SECURITY: protection from injury and promote feeling of safety, -LOVE & BELONGING: protect from isolation, need to feel as part of a group, -SELF-ESTEEM: independent, competent, in control, -SELF ACTUALIZATION: reached full potential

chronic illness

illness that last 6 months or longer.

acute illness

severe symptoms of relatively short duration

disease

alteration in body functions that results in reduction of capacities, or shortening of normal life span

illness

highly personal state, person's physical emotional, intellectual, social, development, and spirital functioning is diminished.

Benefits of exercise: Cognitivie function

-Possitive effect, -Athletic older adults have denser brains, -Brain gym: improves mood, learning, problem solving, -Contralateral movements help those with: ADD, ADHD, learning disorders, mood disorders

nutrients

biochemical substances obtained from ingested food fluids

nonessenial nutrients

is not a dietary requirement because they can by synthesized by the body.

essential nutrients

carbohydrates, fats, proteins. Supplies the body w/energy.

Vitamins, minerals, and water

are not sources of energy, but are important in regulating body processes

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