Holy Roman Empire
Extended from Poland & Hungary on East to France on the West. Included Czechs, Fr Spkers of Belgium, Lorraine, etc but mostly German spkg. Religion was no longer tie to bind becos in Germany - almost evenly divided or even with a Prot maj. - smtms Prots predominated in meetings of estates. To east of HRE Prots smtms dominated also - Hungary, Transylvania, etc. Econ. shift of ctr to West left Germany in some decline. Whereas in 1500 Germany a leader, in 1600 - backward & provincial. Lutheran states - culturally isolated. German univs. losing preeminence. More witches burned here than in west - superstition++. Dutch control of mouth of Rhine -> decl. of econ imptce(+Atl. trade). Fuggers losing position as Euro's bankers.
Peace of Augsburg
1555, "whose the region, his the religion", -> when incumbent died, race to see who would be successor - Luth/Cath. Turn of century - wars in Aachen and Cologne over this. After P of A Lutherans making gains in this area. Caths saw this as violation of Ecclesiastical Reservation.
Feature of the P of A which stated that if a prince/ruler of a state changed his religion after 1550s - should leave the state and could not take ppl with him. Property to stay with religion. But as more and more went to Lutheranism, did not leave but stayed and changed religion of the region. PLUS, many changing to Calvinism - no provision for this under P of A. Ex. the Palatinate. 1608 Protestant Union formed to defend interests of Prot states. 1609, Cath ldrs formed something comparable. Camps forming.
Thirty Years' War
1618-1648, EXCEEDINGLY COMPLEX. GERMAN CIVIL WAR FOUGHT OVER CATHOLIC PROTESTANT ISSUE. ALSO FOUGHT OVER CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES, BETW. EMPEROR SEEKING TO BUILD UP THE CENTRAL POWER OF THE EMPIRE AND THE MEMBER STATES STRUGGLING TO MAINTAIN INDEPENDENCE. ALSO BECAME INTERNATIONAL AND FURTHER COMPLICATED BY USE OF MERCENARIES WHOSE LOYALTIES WERE CHANGEABLE.
HRE and king of Bohemia who sent emissaries to Prague - these mistreated -DEFENESTRATION OF PRAGUE - king/emperor sent troops to reestablish his authority. Bohemians deposed him and chose new king. Elector Palatine(Calvinist) - assumed title of Frederick V. Brought help from Protestant Union.
Successor to Matthias as HRE. Arranged troops from Milan, Pope, Bavaria - > Bohemia and defeated Frederick V at battle of the White Mountain in 1620. Frederick fled at "winter king" and lost his ancestral lands in Palatine. Ferdinand got himself elected king of Bohemia and took land from Prot. nobles -> to church and Jesuits streamed in - recatholicising Bohemia.
Hired by HRE Ferdinand to fight Danish phase of War. Mercenary fighter - internat. band of men. Enigma - ? loyalties. Men lived by pillage rather than pay. Wallenstein sought personal gain. Fought well - pushed Danes all way back to Denmark. Full tide of Counter Reformation swept over Germany.
Edict of Restitution
1629, emperor declared all church properties secularized since 1552 to be turned back to RC CH. -> terror swept over Prot. Germany. Many areas been Prot since anyone could remember. Alarm - also in France and Sweden(but Richelieu busy dealing with nobles and Hugs.)- fear of Universal Monarchy under Hapsburgs.
King of Sweden, superb military leader(modern army), religious, well-loved and respected. "Lion of the North". Financial and diplomatic aid from France and Dutch. Sent troops to Germany. Victories at Breitenfeld and Lutzen(1631 & 32) but GA killed at latter.
GA's chancellor who carries on offensive and takes Swedish forces down into Germany. Period of limbo - uncertain of what resolution. -> Swedish-French Phase comes next. French fear of Hapsburg domination. Richelieu commits forces. Not so much civil war as international conflict on German soil.
PEACE OF WESTPHALIA
1648, begun in 1644 in Munster and Osnabruck. German states took part individually. Papal nuncio barely took part and Pope not a signatory. Indication of the significant SECULARIZATION that had come over Europe since Reformation. This was one of the first major international peace conferences.