To whom was the "Trojan horse' and offering and why?
The horse was an offering to Minerva. It was a votive offering for the Greek's safe return home.
b. Where did the Greeks not in the horse hide while the Trojans pulled the ill-omened horse into the city?
They hid on the shores of a nearby island, Tenedos.
c. What did Laocoon do to try to convince the Trojans that the horse was a war machine?
He threw a spear into the horse's belly
d. What happened to convince the Trojans that Laocoon was not correct?
Some Trojans drag in a man they found in the camps. He is a greek man named Sinon. He tells them that the Greeks had went home. He claims that the gods demanded an Greek life in order for the greeks to get home safely. He claims that he was this Greek life, and that when that had been announced, he fled from the sacrifice to avoid death.
e. What was the strategic purpose of Sinon and whom did he claim was to blame for his predicament? What is ironic about his story?
His strategic purpose was to convince the Trojans that the greeks had left and that the Trojan horse was simply an offering, not a tool of war. He blames Ulysses. This is ironic because the whole Trojan horse was Ulysses's plan, and this man is probably a friend of Ulysses whom Ulysses trusted enough to give him this important job.
f. Aeneas is visited in a dream and told of the siege of Troy. Who visits him and what does he say?
Hector came to him in a dream and told him to flee the enemy who had just taken the city. He advised him to take Troy's people and gods and run. He tells him that he will found a great city after he wanders across the sea.
g. In one of the famous battle scenes within the walls of Troy, Aeneas and his men fight under what disguise?
They disguise themselves as Greeks
h. Who kills Polites and Priam? What about the slaughter gives the scene such extreme pathos?
Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) kills Priam and Polites. Priam, trembling and slipping in his son's blood, is slaughtered upon an altar. This slaughter is a sort of perverted sacrifice, as if Priam is an animal being sacrificed on the altar.
i. When Aeneas encounters Helen in the besieged city, what does he do?
Aeneas becomes enraged, blaming her for the sacking of his city, and plans to kill her. Venus stays his hand.
j. Anchises at first refuses to leave the city with Aeneas. What convinces him to do so?
An omen from Jupiter appears. A flame, harmless to the touch, appears above Ascanius's head.
k. Describe Aeneas as he fled the city
He is carrying his father on his shoulders. Iulus walks beside him, and his wife follows at some distance behind. He also puts a golden lionskin on his shoulders. He keeps to the shadows as he flees. He is also holding the sacred images of the Trojan gods
l. When Aeneas is finally out of the burning city, what does he realize he has lost?
He realizes that he's lost his wife, Creusa
m. In what condition is Creusa when Aeneas finally finds her, and what does she tell him?
She is a shade. She tells him not to be sad because a new home and wife await him in Hesperia.
n. What happens when the Trojans arrived in Thrace and why didn't they stay?
Aeneas prepares to offer sacrifices. When he tears at the roots and branches of a tree, dark blood clots on the ground . The tree speaks to him, revealing itself to be the spirit of Polydorus, son of Priam. Priam had sent Polydorus to the king of Thrace to be safe from the war, but when Troy fell, the Thracian king sided with the Greeks and killed Polydorus.
o. What happens when the Trojans arrived in Delos?
At Delos, Apollo speaks to Aeneas, instructing him to go to the land of his ancestors.
p. What happens when the Trojans arrived in Crete and why didn't they stay?
A terrible plague soon strikes the trojans. The gods of Troy appear to Aeneas in a dream and explain that his father is mistaken. Apollo was referring to Italy, the original home of Dardanus, from whom the Trojans took the name Dardanians.
q. Forced off track by a storm the Trojans arrived on the Strophades islands in the Ionian Sea. What happens there?
The Trojans kill many cows and goats that are roaming around and hold a feast. The harpies get mad and attack them. The Trojans attempt to fight the Harpies off, but to no avail. One of the harpies places a curse on them. She prophesies that the Trojans will not establish their great city until hunger forces them to eat their own tables.
r. What happens when the Trojans arrive arrived in Actium near the Leucatan mountain?
They make offerings at a shrine to Apollo. Then they have the Trojan games.
a. What happens when the Trojans arrived in Buthrotum and why didn't they stay?
Aeneas discovers that Helenus, one of Priam's sons, has become king of Greek citys. Helenus and Andromachë had been taken by Pyrrhus as war prizes, but they seized power over part of Pyrrhus's kingdom after he was killed. They don't stay because Helenus, a seer, advises Aeneas to keep on sailing.Andromache tells Aeneas of Charybdis and Scylla.
b. What happens when the Trojans first arrive at Sicily below the heights of Mount Ida?
Resting on a beach, the Trojans are approached by a stranger. He was in the Greek army under Ulysses, and his crew was captured by Polyphemus. He claims that Ulysses stabbed the monster in his eye so that they could escape, but that his shipmates forgot him in the cyclops's cave
c. When the Trojans have their first sight of Italian soil, what omen do they behold?
They see grazing horses. Anchises sees this as the fulfillment of an omen since these were horses of war and peace: usable for both cavalry and plowshares.
d. What happens when the Trojans come to Drepanum on the western tip of Sicily?
Anchises dies in Drepanum
e. What advise does Dido seek from her sister Anna? What is Anna's response?
Dido tells her sister how impressive and brave she thinks Aeneas is. She says that Aeneas is the only man who has moved her since the death of her husband. She swears that she will not give up her vow of celibacy. Anna responds that Sychaeus would not be mad if she took such a powerful husband. She says that since there are so many hostile tribes around them, marrying Aeneas would be a smart move to keep herself and her city safe and allow it to prosper.
f. When Juno and Venus confer about Aeneas and Dido, what are their mutual interests for having the relationship come together?
Venus tells Juno she will agree to the marriage of Dido and Aeneas if Jupiter blesses it. Juno wants to divert power away from Italy and to Carthage. Venus fears the power of the Carthaginians, and knows that Jupiter will never condone the marriage and allow Aeneas to stay in Carthage. She is simply manipulating Juno.
g. What plot do Juno and Venus agree upon to consummate the relationship between Aeneas and Dido?
There is hunting party for the next day. A storm sweeps in, driving the hunters to cover. Aeneas and Dido take refuge in the same cave. It is there that they are married.
h. In a very compelling passage, news of the marriage spreads over the land. How does Vergil depict this scene and to whom does the news eventually reach?
News of their marriage is spread by the goddess Rumor. She thrives on speed and gains power as she goes. She has numerous eyes, tongues, mouths, and ears to spread the news. She flies through the skies and perches on rooftops and towers, spreading the news . The goddess spreads the gossip of the royal marriage far and wide. News finally reaches King Iarbas.
i. Identify Iarbas. What event is precipitated by his anger?
Iarbas, a local nearby king and the son of Jupiter Ammon, is angered by the news of the marriage since he had been spurned by Dido in his requests for marriage.
j. After Dido finds out that Aeneas is planning to leave, they have a conversation. How do both of them view his impending departure?
Dido: she is enraged. She claims that Aeneas is committing a crime by leaving her and is being cruel. She begs him to stay. Aeneas: He claims that they were never married. He regrets leaving, but he feels that the welfare of troy and his people come first, and that he is obligated by the gods to leave and found a kingdom.
k. Dido, resolved to kill herself, tricks Anna into helping her. What does she tell Anna to do?
She claims that she is going to burn all Aeneas's possessions in her house on a pyre. She tells Anna to prepare all his stuff for the burning
a. Aeneas, who hesitates in the harbor at Carthage is finally encouraged to set sail by who?
b. Describe the circumstances of Dido's death.
"'Do not let love or treaty tie our peoples. May an avenger rise up from my bones, one who will track with firebrand and sword the Dardan settlers, now and in the future, at any time that ways present themselves. May coast oppose coast, waves batter waves, arms clash with arms, may they ever be at war, they themselves and their children forever" This is historically important since Carthage is Rome's greatest military opponent. They fought against each other in the three Punic Wars. Hannibal is the "avenger" who rises up from Dido's bones and ravages the Italian countryside.
c. Describe the circumstances of Dido's death.
She gives a long speech about her hatred for Aeneas and the Trojans and the future hatred between Carthage and Rome. She then picks up a Trojan sword which had been given to her as a gift. She asks a nurse to summon her sister. She then gives a speech about Aeneas carrying the omens of her death with him and collapses upon the sword in front of her companions.
d. What mitigating gesture does Juno offer to Dido as she dies?
Juno sent Iris down from Olympus to free her soul from her mortal body.
e. What now familiar event keeps the Trojans from arriving in Italy? Where do they arrive instead?
A storm postpones their arrival. They arrive instead at the port of Trojan Acestes in Sicily.
f. Identify king Acestes.
Acestes, is the king of Segesta (Greek Egesta) in Sicily. His mother, Egesta, had been sent from Troy by her parents to save her from being devoured by a sea serpent. Going to Sicily she met the river god Crimisus and they had Acestes together.
g. Much of book 5 is the account of various competitions. Why were they held?
The games are held on the shores of Segesta. They're held in the honor of Anchises's death.
h. What competitions were included?
Boat race, footrace, boxing match, archery contest, javelin throw.
i. Aneas shows an important aspect of his character as a leader when he awards prizes to the competitors. What does he do?
After the footrace, Aeneas gives an extra prize to Salius because he was tripped and also gives one to Nisus because he slipped. In the archery competition, Acestes, the fourth contestant, shoots his arrow and it bursts into flame in the air. Aeneas believes this to be a good omen so he awards Acestes first place. In general, Aeneas gives the victor, as well as many of the participants very generous prizes.
j. During the games, Juno is again up to her old tricks. What does she do now to impede the Trojans progress?
She sends Iris to inspire the women of troy to burn the Trojan's ships in order to prevent the Trojans from leaving. (Iris convinces the women that Cassandra, their prophetess, came to her in a dream and told her to found Troy at this new place and that this new place was their home).
k. After the ships are burned, Aeneas again shows his leadership skills. What does he do to mitigate tensions among his followers?
Nautes advises Aeneas to leave the unwilling women and old men with Acestes to make up for the loss of the ships. Anchises comes to him in a dream and tells him he must take this advice. He also tells him to come see him in the underworld once he reaches Italy. Aeneas then calls his companions together and they choose people to remain with Acestes.
l. In book 5, Anchises visits Aeneas in his sleep. What does he tell Aeneas?
Anchises comes to him in a dream and tells him he must take this advice. He also tells him to come see him in the underworld once he reaches Italy
m. While the Trojans again sail to Italy, Venus asks Neptune to guarantee their safety. What is Neptune's reply?
He responds that he has always looked after Aeneas, both on the sea and land. He claims that as Aeneas was about to do battle with Achilles, Neptune whisked him away to safety. He tells her that he is still looking out for Aeneas.
n. Indentify Palinurus and his significance to the plot of the Aeneid.
Palinurus: he is the helmsman for Aeneas's ship. Neptune talks to him and tells him to go to sleep. Palinurus responds that he cannot entrust Aeneas to the whims of the wind and weather even though it appears to be calm. Poseidon gets mad, makes Palinurus fall asleep, and then throws him off the ship.
o. After first ordering Aeneas to make sacrifice, the sibyl, Deiphobe, leads Aeneas to a sacred cave in Cumae where she relates a series of predictions to him. What does she predict?
She tells him that more perils await him on land in Italy. She predicts horrible war and that a second Achilles has been born in Latium. She says that Juno will keep on punishing him and the other Trojans. She claims that the cause of this war will be an alien marriage. She tell Aeneas to stay strong and expect help from a Greek city. Aeneas adds that he is supposed to go to the underworld.
p. Aeneas asks Deiphobe for help getting to the underworld. What does she say he must do?
She tells him it is easy to go down, but it is harder to return. She instructs him that there is a golden bough on a tree in the forest. If one is fated to return from the underworld, he must pluck the bough and use it as a gift for Proserpina. The bough will not break free if it is touched by someone who isn't fated to make it back. She also tells him that before he goes he must bury a member of his crew.
q. Identify Misenus and his significance to the Aeneid.
He is the unburied crew member whom Aeneas must bury before he can go on to the underworld.
r. How does Aeneas find the golden bough?
Aeneas sees his mother's bird, the dove, and prays for a sign from his mother. Then two white doves lead him to the bough
s. What is particularly magical about the golden bough?
The bough cannot be plucked unless one is fated to give it to Persephone and return home.
t. Where does Aeneas meet Palinurus in the underworld?
He meets him on the shores of the styx. He is unable to cross since he was not buried.
u. Where does Aeneas meet Dido in the underworld? Who is she with? What is her reaction to Aeneas?
He sees her in the fields of Lamentation. She is with her husband. She ignores him, keeping her eyes fixed on the ground, turns away, and flees to her husband.
v. In the fields of famed solders Aeneas meets Deiphobus, another of Priam's sons. What does he tell Aeneas?
He tells Aeneas that he woman whom he was sleeping with betrayed him the night of the invasion and hid his weapons before she led Greeks into his bedchamber. He was killed by Menelaus and Odysseus in.
w. Where does Aeneas meet Anchises?
He meets his dad in the Elysian fields
x. What is Lethe and why is it significant to the Aeneid?
Lethe is a river. It is the river of forgetfulness and timeless oblivion. Along the river is a large group of people: these people are aeneas's descendants (among others, there are Romulus and Augustus Caesar). The Aeneid proves the emperors' and Rome's divine ancestors.
y. What does Anchises tell Aeneas in the underworld?
Anchises points out all of Aeneas's famous descendants, both pre-rome, Romulus, and emperors of the Roman Empire. This is the main goal of the Aeneid: both to give Rome and its emperors divine connections, but also to serve as propaganda from Augustus Caesar.
z. As one exits the underworld there are two gates, one of horn and one of ivory. Which is the only one that leads to the upper world for those who are not true shades?
What does "in media res" mean and how does it apply to the Aeneid?
"In media res" literally means "in the middle of things." This means that the story starts right in the middle of things towards the middle or end of the plot. In the Aeneid, the first few lines outline the life of Aeneas and his journey throughout the book. The book pretty much starts at the end.
What the three reasons for Juno's anger at the Trojans?
Juno is upset with Aeneas because his descendants are destined to destroy Carthage (the city she favored more than any other). She was made at the spiteful honor given to Ganymede. She was also mad about the Trojan war which she had waged on the side of the Greeks, and she had grief over her beauty which had been scorned by the Trojans.
Where are the Trojans as the epic opens and what is Juno's plan to keep them from Italy?
Sicily had just dropped out of sight and they were sailing the open sea. Juno's plan is to send a storm upon them and sink their ships or at least scatter their fleet.
Who finally calms the seas, and to what is this god compared in the first of Vergil's many extended similes in the epic?
Neptune he is compared to a loyal citizen, a man of respect. In this simile, the loyal citizen breaks up a riot and calms down the crowd.
a. How many ships originally set sail from Troy and how many are left, as far as Aeneas knows, after the storm? How many are actually left after all the men are reunited?
a. There were originally twenty ships. He thinks there are seven are left. There are actually 12 left.
a. In one of the first major vignettes that show Aeneas caring for his men, Aeneas
a. Aeneas shot seven stags (one for each boat). He then distributes wine and food among the men and tries to calm his companions by reminding them that they got through other troubles alive, and that they can do it again. While he is giving this courageous, inspiring speech, he is actually very worried.
a. Jupiter assures Venus that Aeneas and his men will indeed live to fulfill their destinies. What three cities will the Trojans eventually found? Who will found each of them? b.
Lavinium by Aeneas. Alba Longa by Ascanius. Rome by Romulus
a. According to Jupiter who will eventually establish an "imperium" stretching to the ends of the oceans, issuing in a new age of peace?
"Trojan Caesar" Augustus
a. Venus meets Aeneas and Achates on the road to Carthage. What is her disguise, and what does she tell them?
d. She is dressed like a young woman and bears a huntress's weapons. She says that the city he has arrived at is a group of Tyrians led by a queen named Dido. Dido's husband, Sychaeus, was secretly killed by her jealous brother Pygmalion. Sychaeus's ghost then came to her in a dream and told her what happened. He instructed her to leave and showed her the location of a bunch of gold and silver. She gathered up all the people who didn't like Pygmalion and came to North Africa. She also assures him that the gods don't have a grudge against him. She says that twelve of his ships have come to Carthage.
a. Give and account of the story of Dido, Sychaeus and Pygmalion
Dido's husband, Sychaeus, was secretly killed by her jealous brother Pygmalion. Sychaeus's ghost then came to her in a dream and told her what happened. He instructed her to leave and showed her the location of a bunch of gold and silver. She gathered up all the people who didn't like Pygmalion and came to North Africa.
a. What do Aeneas and Achates witness when they are enveloped in mist as they come to and enter the city of Carthage?
a. He observes: a huge city, paved streets busy with Tyrians hard at work, the building of walls and the fortifying of the citadel, the marking out of sites for houses with trenches, the making of laws, the choosing of officials, the installation of a senate, the dredging of the harbor, and the laying out of the foundation for a theater. Pretty much the building of a city. At the center of the city he sees a shrine to Juno. In the middle of this there are bronze pictures of the Trojan war, depicting scenes and people that he remember.
a. At what point in the story does Aeneas first see men from the ships that were lost during Aeolus' storm?
b. Aeneas sees his initially lost comrades again on line 625. As he is hidden in the mist observing Dido making laws for her people and assigning and distributing duties he sees the other Trojans approach her.
a. In the end of book 1, Venus tricks Dido in such a way as to forment her love for Aeneas. What does she do?
c. She asks Cupid to approach Dido in the form of Ascanius. In this form, he incites her to love Aeneas. Dido then leads "Ascanius" around and holds him in her lap.
a. How does Aeneas react when Dido asks him to tell the story of the Trojan War?
d. He claims that telling the story is painful for him. He says that it will give him unspeakable sorrow to recall how the Greeks sacked Troy. But he claims that if she really wants to know, he will tell her