A major shift in thinking between 1500 and 1700 in which modern science emerged as a new way of gaining knowledge about the natural world
Proposed the heliocentric theory that put the sun in the center of the earth with the planets traveling around the sun.
Improved upon Copernicus's theory by showing that the planetary orbits were ellipses (ovals) not circles; wrote mathematical laws describing the movement of the planets
was forced by the church court known as the Inquisition to swear that the geocentric theory was true
Italian astronomer and mathematician who built his own telescope and found four moons revolving around Jupiter