Chapter 3 - Weather and Climate

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Chapter 3


the condition of the atmosphere at a given time and place


weather conditions in a region over a long time


measurement of heat

greenhouse effect

the process in which Earth's atmosphere traps heat energy

global warming

the process in which Earth grows warmer over a period of time


winds around centers of low atmospheric pressure

prevailing winds

winds that blow in the same direction most of the time


areas with no prevailing winds


zone of contact between two air masses of widely different temperatures or moisture level


process by which liquid changes to gas


the amount of water vapor in the air


the process by which water vapor changes from a gas into liquid droplets

orographic effect

cooling effect that occurs wen air is forced to rise over a mountain, resulting in a weather windward side and a drier leeward side

rain shadow

a drier area on the leeward side of a mountain range


violent twisting spirals of air


the most powerful and destructive tropical cyclones


the term for hurricanes in the western Pacific Ocean


communities of plants and animals


a wind system in which winds reverse direction and cause seasons of wet and dry weather


areas of tropical grasslands, scattered trees, and shrubs

deciduous forests

forests made up of trees that lose their leaves during part of the year

coniferous forests

forests of cone-bearing evergreen trees


permanently frozen soil below the ground's surface

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