- first US president, elected unanimously
- established cabinet
- established by GW
- first cabinet: Sec. of State T. Jefferson, Sec. of Treasury A. Hamilton, Sec. of War H. Knox
"father of the Const.", also drafted Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights
- first 10 amendments to Const.
- freedom of religion, speech, and press
- right to bear arms and to trial by jury
- right to assemble and to petition the gov.
- forbade cruel and unusual punishments and unnecessary seziure of private prop.
specifying certain rights does not mean that other rights shouldn't be respected as well
reserves all rights not explicity delegated or prohibited by the federal Const. "to the States respectively, or to the people"
Judiciary Act of 1789
- organized Supreme Court w/ chief justice and 5 associates
- office of attorney general
- federal district and circuit courts
- wrote The Federalist papers with Madison
- first chief justice of US
- set as negotiator to London in 1794, made Jay Treaty (FAILURE)
- sec. of Treasury
- financial policy to solve US debt and credit rating favored wealthier groups (funding at par, assumption, tariffs, excise taxes, nat. bank)
funding at par
federal gov. would pay off their debts at face value plus accumulated interest (totaled > $54 million)
- assuming debts of each state
- chain states more tightly to nat. gov.
- states w/ small or no debts (ex: VA) not happy
first tariff law
- low tariff on dutiable imports
- protective wall around infant industries
tax on production (?), chiefly on whiskey
Bank of the United States
- private institution in which gov. would be major stockholder
- fed. gov. could deposit surplus funds --> stay in circulation to stimulate business
- make stable nat. currency
- caused major conflict among Jeffersonians and Hamiltonians
- protest against whiskey excise tax; saw as a burden on econ.
- in Pennsylvania, 1794
- tarred and feathered revenue officers
- GW summoned state militias; army of 13,000 dispersed or captured Whiskey Boys
- commanded respect for nat. gov. but some thought it showed unnecessary force
- anti-strong nat. gov.
- pro-French rev.
- anti-Sedition and Alien laws
- "literal" interpretation of Const.
- anti-National Bank
- pro-strong nat. gov.
- anto-French rev. (when it got violent esp.)
- made Sedition and Alien laws (took advantage of fear of French rebels)
- "loose" interpretation of Const.
- pro-National Bank
Reign of Terror
- violent phase of the French Rev.
- changed American views of rev: Federalists called Frenchies "cannibals" and Jeffersonians regretted bloodshed
Franco-American alliance of 1778
once war in France broke out, should America honor alliance and come to their aid?
- Jeffersonians said yes
- Hamiltonians said that nation was not ready for war, should avoid war at all costs
- made by GW in 1793
- declared America's neutrality in conflict b/t France and Britain and warned citizens to stay impartial
- basis of isolationist tradition
- enraged Jeffersonians
- ended up favoring France more than an army would have
- came to US as rep. of French Republic
- greeted w/ enthusiasm by Jeffersonians; led him to believe that Neut. Pol. did not reflect true wishes of Americans
- began to recruit unauthoriized armies to invade Louisianna and Canada
- deported by GW
- regarded Ohio River as US's northwestern border
- led by chief Little Turtle, defeated American armies and killed 100s of soldiers
Battle of Fallen Timbers
-1794: General "Mad Anthony" Wayne routed Miami Indians and British refused to shelter the Indians
- Indians offered peace treaty, since they had been abandoned by their British friends
Treaty of Greenville
Miami Confederacy gave up lots of land, received $20,000 lump sum and $9000 annually, the right to hunt on lands they had given up, and recognition of their sovereign status
- British promised to evacuate chain of posts on US soil and to pay for damages to US merchant ships
- fail to promise anything regarding future attacks on merchant ships
- US had to repay pre-rev. debts to Britain
- treaty enraged Jeffersonians and French b/c it seemed like a surrender to Britain
- Spain granted US free nav. of Mississippi, warehouse rights at New Orleans, and territory of Western Florida
- made b/c Spain feared US would make alliance w/ British --> granted US virtually anything they wanted
- GW retires after 2 terms (sets precident)
- stressed avoidance of permanent alliances
- 2nd president of the US
- experienced but unpopular w/ the masses (and he didn't care)
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
- French foreign minister
- John Adams set 3 men to negotiate w/ him --> XYZ affair
- afterwards agreed to meet and respect American delegates
- US delegates met by 3 spokesmen (X, Y, and Z) who demanded loan of 32 million florins and bribe of $250,000 just to talk to Talleyrand
- Americans refused and returned home
- at home, Americans were furious --> led to conflicts at sea and expansion of army and navy
Convention of 1800
- France released US of old alliance
- US pays damage of ships
- paves way for Louisianna purchase
- president empowered to deport dangerous foreigners in time of peace and to deport or imprison them in time of war
- contrary to Const., but never enforced
- anyone who hindered gov. or falsely defamed its officials liable to heavy fine and imprisonment
- many Jeffersonians imprisoned
- written to expire in 1801 so it could not be used against Federalists if they lost next election
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
- drafted by Jefferson
- said that nat. gov. had overstepped its rights w/ Alien and Sedition laws
- source of nat. gov. was originally the states, and so the nat. gov. could not break the contract (or "compact") w/ the states