a215 Chapter 1 Body Regions/Cavities/Reference

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Planes of Reference and Descriptive terms body regions body cavities

anatomic position

upright, feet parallel, palms forward. gives a reference so we can all determine from the same body.

sagittal plane

divides the body into right and left portions, can have many, not necessarily down the middle.

midsagittal plane

divides the body equally into right and left HALVLES. there is only one!

Coronal plane

or frontal, divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back). same direction as suture on skull

transverse plane

or horizontal plane, divides the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) portions

anterior

in front of, toward front of surface.
ex) the stomach is _____ to the spinal cord.

posterior

in back of, toward the back surface
ex) the heart is ____ to the sternum

dorsal

at the back side of the human body
ex) the spinal cord is on the ___ side of the body

ventral

at the belly side of the human body
ex) the umbilicus (navel, belly button) is on the ____ side of the body

superior

relative to the head or tail of the body, closer to the head
ex) the chest is ____ to the pelvis.

inferior

relative to the head or tail of the body; closer to the feet
ex) the stomach is _____ to the heart

caudal

relative to the head or tail of the body; at the rear or tail end
ex) the abdomen is _____ to the head

cranial

relative to the head or tail of the body; at the head end
ex) the head is _____ to the trunk.

medial

relative to the midline or center of the body; toward the midline of the body
ex) the lungs are _____ to the shoulders

lateral

relative to the midline or center of the body; away from the midline of the body.
ex) the arms are ____ to the heart

deep

relative to the midline or center of the body; on the inside, underneath another structure.
ex) muscles are _____ To the skin

superficial

relative to the midline or center of the body; on the outside.
ex) the external edge of the kidney is _____ to its internal structure.

proximal

relative to point of attachment of the appendage; closest to point of attachment to trunk.
ex) the elbow is ______ to the hand

distal

relative to point of attachment of the appendage; furthest from point of attachment to trunk.
ex) the wrist is ___ to the elbow.

cephalic region

region of the head. subregions include orbital, nasal, oral, mental, frontal, occipital.

orbital region

subregion of cephalic region; referring to the eye

nasal

subregion of cephalic region; referring to the nose

oral

subregion of cephalic region; referring to the mouth

mental

subregion of cephalic region; referring to the chin

frontal

subregion of cephalic region; referring to the forehead

occipital

subregion of cephalic region; referring to the back of the head

cervical region

region referred to as the neck. neck referred to as the cervix

thoracic region

alco called the thorax, chest region. includes the pectoral region, mammary region, sternal region, axillary region.

pectoral region

subregion of the thorax; chest (subdivided into left and right __regions)

mammary region

subregion of the thorax; breast

steranl region

subregion of the thorax; area of chest between L and R pectoral regions

axillary region

subregion of the thorax; armpit

abdominal region

located inferior to diaphragm and superior to the hips

pelvic region

inferior to the abdominal region, located between the hip bones

upper extremity

arm; includes the deltoid region, brachium region, antecubital region, carpal region, and hand region (palmar, dorsum)

deltoid region

subregion of the upper extremity; shoulder

brachium region

subregion of the upper extremity; arm - define as from shoulder to elbow

antecubital region

subregion of the upper extremity; elbow region

antebrachium region

subregion of the upper extremity; forearm - between elbow and hand

carpal region

subregion of the upper extremity; wrist

hand

subregion of the upper extremity; includes palmar (palm) and dorsum (back of hand)

Lower extremity

leg, subregions include femoral region, patellar region, popliteal region, crural region, and foot (plantar, dorsum)

femoral region

subregion of the lower extremity; thigh, from hip to knee

patellar region

subregion of the lower extremity; anterior surface of the knee

popliteal region

subregion of the lower extremity; posterior of the knee

crural region

subregion of the lower extremity; leg, from knee to ankle

foot

subregion of the lower extremity; pedal region, plantar (sole of foot) and dorsum (top surface of foot)

body cavity

enclosed spaces within the body

endo

prefix meaning "within"

cranial cavity

body cavity; aka endocranium, houses the brain no serous membrane

vertebral canal

body cavity; cylindrical opening formed by the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord. no serous membrane

thoracic cavity

body cavity; chest cavity, bounded inferiorly by the diaphragm. includes 2 pleural (lung) cavities, a mediastinum, and pericardial cavity.

pleural cavity

the cavity associated with the lungs, subregion of the thoracic cavity. contains pleural serousm membrane

mediastinum

cavity between the lungs, subregion of the thoracic cavity. contains the pericardial cavity, thymus, trachea, esophagus, and major blood vessels. no serous membrane

pericardial cavity

cavity associated with the heart, subregion of the thoracic cavity. contains pericardium serous membrane

abdominopelvic cavity

cavity that consists of the abdominal and pelvic cavities

abdominal cavity

cavity within the abdominopelvic cavity, sits superior to an imaginary line drawn between the superior aspects of the hip bones and inferior to the diaphragm. associated with abdominal viscera, including stomach, spleein, liver, pancreas, small intestine, most of large intestine, kidneys, ureters. contains peritoneum serous membrane.

pelvic cavity

cavity within the abdominopelvic cavity, sits inferior to an imaginary line drawn between the superior aspects of the hip bones. associated with the pelvic viscera, including urinary bladdar and urethra, interal reproductive organs, andsome of the large intestine. contains peritoneum seroius membrane

serous membranes

composed of tissue. either support or cover organs or line the walls of some body cavities. secrete serous fluid, which reduces friction and lubricates.

parietal layer

the layer of a serous membrane that lines the internal surface of a body wall.

visceral layer

the layer of a serous membrane that covers the external surface of organs. visceral = organ

serous cavity

potential space between parietal and visceral layer of serous membrane. this is where the serious fluid is secreted!

pleurisy

clinical application: an inflammation of (usually both visceral and parietal) pleura. less serous produced and white BC produce a sticky material (not a lubricant). very painful to breathe because of the additional friction, stabbing chest pain. may after a respiratory infection.

peritoneum

periteino = to stretch over. a moist, two layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity. parietal and visceral peritoneum.

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