Anatomy and Physiology the unity of form and function 5th edition chapter 2 the chemistry of life

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Element

The simplest form of matter w unique chemical properties.

Atomic number

Protons in it's nucleus

Periodic table

Letter symbols of elements arranged by atomic number

98.5% of body weIght consists of

C,h,o,n,ca,p

Element

Pure substance
Not changed in normal chemical reactions
Gold carbon oxygen and iron

Atom

Smallest unit of element

Compound

Two or more elements joined in definite proportions

Molecule

Smaller unit of a compound

Atomic mass

Total number protons and neutrons

Atoms have neutral charge

# of protons = # of neutrons

Isotopes

Elements that differ in the number of neutrons
Have no change in chemical behavior
H1 H2 H3

Atomic weight

average atomic mass of the mixture of isopes of an element found in a sample

Radioactivity

Elements break down to become the more stable isotope during this decay they release radiation

Molecule

Formed when two or more share an electron
Written using a molecular formula

Physical half life

Time for atoms to decay

Biological half life

Time for it to disappear

Ionization

Transfer of electrons from one atom to another to increase stability of valence shells

Na, ca, mg,cl, po43 and hco3-

Bodies most essential electrolytes
Needed for muscle and nerve function

Free radicals

Unpaired # of electrons
Oxygen with an extra electron
Caused by metabolic reactions
Radiation and chemicals
Causes tissue damage
Triggers chain reactions

Antioxidants

Neutralize free radicals

Structural formula

Shows arrangement of atoms

Molecular formula

Itemizes each element present and it's quantity

Isomer

Molecular formula is identical but structures and chemical properties are different

Non-polar covalent bonds

Share electrons equally

Polar covalent bonds

Share electrons unequally

Hydrophilic

Water loving. Dissolves in water

Hydrophobic

Water fearing, does not dissolve in water

Hydration sphere

Water molecules overpower the ionic bond between Na+Cl-

Adhesion

Attraction between one substance and another substance

Cohesion

Attraction between one substance and itself
Water due to hydrogen bonds
Reason for surface tension

Heat capacity

Amount of heat to raise the temperature of a substance

Calorie

Amount of heat to raise the temperature

Solutions

a mixture where substances are distributed evenly. Has a solvent & solute

Colloids

Liquids when particles are suspended in solution. Gell state. Gelatin. Liquid to gel state. Cloudy. Milk protein

Suspensions

Temporary mixture
The suspended material will eventually separate out.
Blood when left to sit. The red blood cells will separate from plasma

Percentage

Volume of solute to volume of solution

Molar

designating a solution containing 1 mole of solute per 1000 grams of solvent

Molarity

the number of moles of solute per liter of solution

Acid

Proton lender. More hydrogen atoms

Base

Proton acceptors,

Buffers

Neutralize ph

Energy

The capacity to do work

Kinetic energy

Energy of motion

Potential energy

Inherent energy due to an objects position
Or internal state

Chemical energy

Potential energy stored in the molecular bonds

Decomposition reactions

a large molecule breaks down into two or more smaller ones

Synthesis reaction

a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound

Exchange reactions

Two molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms AB+CD - ABCD - AC+BD

Ph

a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.

Catalysts

Substances that reduce the activation energy of a chemical reaction.

Anabolism

Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials

Catabolism

breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy

Metabolism

all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism

Oxidation

loss of electrons

Reduction

Gain of electrons

Carbohydrate

a substance in foods such as rich, bread, and potatoes that provides your body with heat and energy

Lipids

nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water

Carbon bonds readily with

H O N Su

Ampiphilic

Ie: phospholipids, has both lipophilic and hydrophilic parts

Dehydration synthesis

process where water is removed to put 2 smaller molecules together

Hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

Law of conservation of energy

the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another

Exergonic

chemical reaction that releases some form of energy, such as light or heat.

Endergonic

chemical reaction requiring free energy in addition to enzymes and activation energy

Activation energy

energy needed to get a reaction started

Carbon atomic #

6 4 unpaired
Uses covalent bonds

Hydroxyl group

---OH sugars ,alcohols
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.

Sulfhydryl

-SH; found in some amino acids; forms disulfide bridges in proteins
Keeps the shape of the protein

Carbonyl

-- COOH
Ketones, C=O
Polar and hydrophobic

Aldehyde

Polar and hydrphobic, An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.

1:2:1 ratio

Carbohydrate
C6 h12 o 6

Sugars ,starches, glycogen, cellulose

Carbohydrates

Monosaccharide

Simplest carbohydrates
Glucose, galactose,fructose

Disaccharides

A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis., sucrose, lactose, maltose

Methyl

-CH₃
Fats oils steroids

Amino

Amino acids
Proteins, -NH2

Phosphate

H2PO₄³⁻
Nucleic acid ATP

Phospholipids

A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.

Eicosanoids

Lipids that exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation or immunity, and as messengers in the central nervous system.

Steroids

A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
85% naturally produced by body

Fat soluble vitamins

A D E K

# of amino acids

20

R group

Attached to central carbon which determines chemical properties

Amino acids

Building , building blocks of proteins

Peptide bonds

Link amino acids together

Polymer

large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together

Dipeptide

Have 2 amino acids, two amino acids joined together

Oligopeptide

A peptide with a chain of fewer than 10-15 amino acids.

PolypeptIde

a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids

Protein

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes

Synthesis that creates a peptide bond that joins amino acids

Dehydration

Primary structure

The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.

Secondary structure

The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages.

Tertiary structure

The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the polar of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.

Quaternary structure

The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.

Denaturation

Distraction of a p, when an enzyme changes shape and no longer functions due to high temperatures or wrong pH

Primary structure of Insulin

Composed of two polypeptide chains joined by disulfide bridges

HemogloBin

Has 4polypeptide chains . iron-containing ring called Heme protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells

Protein structural functions

Building materials
Collagen, keratin

Catalytic

Enzymes relating to or causing or involving catalysis

Regulatory proteins

Hormones, cell receptors

Transport proteins

Carriers

Immunological proteins

Antibodies

Contractile

Machinery for muscle contraction

Substrate

specific reactant acted on by an enzyme

Enzymes

protein substances that speed up chemical reactions. Reduce activation energy

Cofactors

a non protein substance that helps an enzyme catalyze a metabolic reaction

Coenzyme

An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions

Nucleotides

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

ATP

main energy source that cells use for most of their work

Atpases

enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and P

Kinases

Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to acceptor molecules.

GTP

energy source in protein synthesis
May donate a phosphate group p1 to another molecule , A nucleotide composed of guanine, ribose, and three linked phosphate groups. It is incorporated into the growing RNA chain during synthesis of RNA and used as a source of energy during synthesis of proteins

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

(cAMP) A nucleotide formed by the removal of both the second and third phosphate groups from ATP.

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