A contingency in which a response prevents or postpones the presentation of a stimulus.
Conditioned negative reinforcer
A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a negative reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more negative reinforcers.
A contingency in which responding in the presence of a signal prevents the onset of a stimulus from which escape is a reinforcer.
A response in which a response terminates (escapes from) an ongoing stimulus
A contingency in which responses at any time during an interval prior to the scheduled onset of an aversive stimulus delays the presentation of the aversive stimulus.
The termination, reductions, or postponement of a stimulus contingent on the occurrence of a response, which leads to an increase in the in the future occurrence of that response.
Unconditioned negative reinforcer
A stimulus that functions as a negative reinforcer as a result of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny); no prior learning is involved (e.g., shock, loud noise, intense light, extreme temperatures, strong pressure against the body).