Psychology Chapt. 1 MC

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Which of the following best describes the view of the mind held by Plato and Socrates?

The mind is separate from the body and continues after the body dies.

Which phil. was the first to conclude that knowledge results from our memories of our experiences?

Aristotle

Descartes theory of how our brain controlled our reflexes involved which of the following?

brain fluid and animal spirits

Which phil. is most well known for theorizing that the mind at birth is tabula rasa or a blank slate?

John Locke

The ideas that most directly helped form modern empiricism were proposed by

John Locke and Francis Bacon

Which phil would have been most enthusiastic about modern empiricism?

Aristotle

The first psychological laboratory was established by

Wilhelm Wundt

Wilhelm Wundt's lab work involved experimental studies of

reactions to sensory stimulation

Which of the following innovations differentiated Wilhelm Wundt's research the most from any psychologist before him?

Lab research

Wilhelm Wundt's early experiments were attempts to investigate which area of psychology>

the simplest metal processes

Why is Wilhelm Wundt often considered the first scientific psychological researcher?

He gathered data trough experiments in his lab

In Wilhelm Wundt's experiments, participants were asked to press a key as soon as they were consciously aware of perceiving a sound. By asking part. to examine and report their conscious experience, Wundt was making use of which of the following?

introspection

Who used the method of introspection to scientifically identify basic elements of mind?

Edward Titchener

The self-reflective observation of one's own sensations and feelings is called

introspection

Introspection was the basic research oil used by in order to study people's inner sensations and mental images

Edward Titchener

Research participants were asked to monitor and report their own immediate sensory reactions to differently colored objects. This research involved a technique known as

introspection

The method of introspection was used by Titchener to identify

elements of sensory experience

Research participants who carefully observe and report their immediate reactions and feelings in response to diff musical sounds are using the method known as

introspection

The unreliability of introspection contributed to the waning popularity of

structuralism

Contemporary psychologists are most likely to reject which of the following as appropriate for the study of psychology?

introspection

The early school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by

William James

William James was a prominent

functionalist

Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the

adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions

Who was a student of William James and the first female president of the American Psychological Ass.?

Mary Calkins

Which psychologist was the first woman to receive a Ph.D in psychology after Harvard U declined to give Mary Calkins the Ph.D?

Margaret Washburn

Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for emerging discipline of psychology?

William James

The personality theorist Sigmund Freud was an Austrian

physician

In its early years, psychology foxed on the study of , but from the 1920s to the 1960s, American psychologist emphasized the study of

mental life; observable behavior

Who would have been most likely to ignore mental processes and to define psychology as "the scientific study of observable behavior"?

John B. Watson

Who would be most likely to emphasized the role of the unconscious in affecting behavior?

Sigmund Freud

In explaining human behavior, psychoanalysts are likely to focus on , whereas humanistic psychologists concentrate on

childhood experiences and unconscious though processes; current environmental influences on potential

Behaviorists dismissed the value of

introspection

Which of the following psychologists most clearly rejected the value of introspections>

John B. Watson

Humanistic psychologists focused on the importance of

healthy growth potential

In the 1960s, humanistic psychologists considered the approach advanced by behaviorist to be excessively

mechanistic

Int he early 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of

mental processes

Which area of psychology might be best suited to investigate the following research question: what happens in our brains when we forget details about stressful life events, and how does this process affect behavior?

cognitive neuroscience

Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of

behavior and mental processes

Arguments as to whether psychological differences b/w men and women result from biological or social influences most clearly involve a debate over the issue of

nature vs. nurture

Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is ore heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding

nature vs. nurture

Lissette wonders whether personality differences between her African-American and Asian American friends result from biological of cultural influences. In this instance, Lissette is primarily concerned with the relative contributions of

nature and nurture

In the context of debates regarding the origins of knowledge, Aristotle is to as Plato is to

nurture; nature

The inheritance of behavioral characteristics was emphasized by

Charles Darwin

The survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as

natural selection

Who highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits?

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin believed that behaviors, such as the emotional expressions associated with human rage, could be explained by natural selection. Which early psychologist would be most likely to agree with Darwin's assessment?

William James

Which statement best exemplifies contempt. psychology's understanding of the nature nurture issue>

Depression is a disorder of the brain and of thought

The biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding of social-cultural influences integrated within the larger framework of

multiple levels of analysis

Janna has low self-esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. Appreciated the complexity of Janna difficulties requires

a biopsychosocial approach

Which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative impact of both nature and nurture on our psychological traits?

Biopsychosocial

Prof Brody attempts to measure the relative contributions of inborn traits and social influences on homosexual behavior. Her research efforts best illustrate the interests of the approach

biopsychosocial

Which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative contributions of heredity and experience to personality development?

biopsychosocial

Prof reed attempts to asses the relative contributions of heredity and home environment on children's susceptibility to depression. Her research best illustrates the concerns of the approach

biopsychosocial

Margaret has difficulty speaking in from of her classmates and explains to a friend "Everybody in my family is shy, so it must be genetic". Using the biopsychosocial approach to understanding her behavior, Margaret should

examine her additional psychological and social-cultural influences on shyness.

Depression is an illness that may berated to chemical imbalances int eh brain, illogical thinking, and impaired social skills, Such an integrated explanation best illustrates the

biopsycholosocial approach

Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory

biological

The biological perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by

blood chemistry

Mr. Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. He favors a perspective on depression

biological

The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how

people encode, process, store, and retrieve info

Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?

cognitive

Prof Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the perspective

evolutionary

The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is tits emphasis on

unconscious conflicts

Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses

behavioral

Mrs. Thompson believes that her son as become an excellent student bc she consistently uses praise and affection to stimulate his learning effort. Her belief best illustrates a perspective

behavioral

which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits?

evolutionary

Mark believes that people are genetically predisposed to dislike bitter-tasting foods bc this has enhance human survival. His belief best illustrates the perspective

evolutionary

Akira believes that her son has become a good student bc she always praises his learning efforts. Her belief best illustrates a perspective

behavioral

Mrs Alfieri believes that her husband's angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. she is looking at her husband's behavior from a(n) perspective

psychodynamic

Which perspective is most directly concerned with how the physical properties of the brain influence behaviors and mental states

biological

In a class lecture, Prof Hampton emphasized the extent to which abnormal blood chemistry can contribute to psychological disorders. The professor's lecture highlighted a perspective on psychological disorders

biologival

A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is emptying a(n) perspective

psychodynamic

The behavioral perspective is most likely to emphasize the importance of

observable responses

Natassia believes the boys learn to be more aggressive than girls primarily because boys are more frequently exposed to external pressures to fight. Natassia''s belief most directly exemplifies the perspective

behavioral

Which psychological perspective highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieve info?

cognitive

A concern with the reasoning processes that contribute to effective problem soling is mod characteristic of the perspective

cognitive

Dr. Macpherson believes that the way students organize and think about the info in their textbooks will strongly influence their ability to later remember and use what they have studied. Dr. MacPherson's ideas most directly exemplify the perspective.

cognitive

Dr. Kosak has concluded that the unusually low incidence of alcohol dependence among cities of a small African country can be attributed tot he strong fundamentalist religious influences int hat region. This belief best illustrates a(n) perspective

social-cultural

Which perspective is most concerned with the unique ways in which individuals interpret their own life experiences?

cognitive

Which perspective would focus on the extent to which different styles of parenting are encored among various ethnic communities?

social-cultural

Dr. Wilson attributes the delinquent behaviors of many teens to the pressures associated with vein members of street gangs. Her account best illustrates a(n) perspective.

social-cultural

Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions associated with the emotions of lust and rage are inherited?

evolutionary

A theoretic perspective in psychology can be like a two-dimensional view of a three-dimensional object because each perspective is

limited in its scope

Dr. Robinson conducts basic research on the relationship between brain chemistry and intellectual functioning. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Robinson's research best represent?

biologival psychology

Dr. Stantiello conducts basic research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. It is most likely that he is a(n) psychologist

developmental

Dr. T iao conducts basic research on the effects of head inures on people's proble-solving and abstract-reasonign skills. Which psychological specialty does her recency best represent?

biological psychology

Dr. Winkle conducts basic research on the systematic changes in intelligence associated with aging. It is most likely that Dr. Winkle is a(n) psychologist

developmental psychologist

Dr. Karima conducts basic research on the relative effectiveness of massed practice and spaced practice on a person's ability to remember info. He is most likely a psychologist

cognitive

Dr. WIlcox conducts basic research on the behavioral differences between shy an outgoing people. He is most likely a(n) psychologist

personality

Dr. Veenstra conducts basic research on the impact of racial prejudice on behavior. He is most likely a(n) psychologist

social

Dr. Valeigh conducts basic research on the relationship between adults' language skills and their capacity to solve math problems. He is most likely a(n) psychologist

cognitive

Dr. Ochoa develops tests to accurately identity the most qualified job applicants in a large manufacturing firm. Which psychological specialty does his work best represent?

industrial-organizational psychology

which professional specialty focuses not he diagnosis and treatment of people with psychological disorders>

clinical psychology

Working in a community mental health center, Dr. Thatcher treats adults who suffer from severe depression. He is most likely a(n) psychologist

clinical

Dr. Lipka is involved in a n applied research study of customer satisfaction with a newly developed line of facial cosmetics and other beauty aids. She i most likely a(n) psychologist

industrial-organizational

For no apparent reason, adam has recently begun to feel so tense and anxious that he frequently stays home from work. It would be most beneficial for Adam to contact a(n) psychologist

clinical

Clinical psychologists specialize in

providing drug therapy to troubled people

The specialist most likely to have a medical degrees is a(n)

Psychiatrist

Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. WHich specialty area does his research best represent?

social psychology

Mr. Kay is interested in whether individual differences affect learning. Mr. Kay is most likey a(n) psychologist

educational

Mr. Bown uses her knowledge of a person's cognitive processes to design computer programs that are easier to use. Mr. Brown is most likely a(n) psychologist

human factors

Mr. Christian has designed a camera with buttons that are easy to reach and see. He is most likely

engaged in applied research

While reading her AP Psychology textbook, Sara scans the section headings, noticing how the units are organized, and forms questions to answer while reading. According to the get, her strategy best reflects

active processes of the material

According to the text, the SQ3R study method is affective because it

utilizes active processing of the text info

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