What are the two main regions of the body?
1. Axial Region (Goes down midline of the body)
2. Appendicular Region (limbs)
What three structures are in the Axial Region?
3. Axial Region (Goes down midline of the body)
c) Trunk (has 3 parts)
What are the three parts of the Trunk (Axial Region)?
1) Thorax (chest area). Above diaphragm. Contains heart and lungs.
2) Abdomen (not called the stomach!). Contains the digestive organs
3) Pelvis (covered by the G-String) Contains urinary and reproductive organs
What makes up the Upper Limbs of the Appendicular Region?
Appendicular Region - limbs
a) Upper Limbs
1) Axilla (armpit)
2) Arm (shoulder to elbow)
3) Forearm (elbow to wrist). Don't confuse with arm!
5) Hand: 4 fingers with 3 phalanges each; thumb with 2 phalanges
What makes up the Lower Limbs of the Appendicular Region?
b) Lower Limbs
1) Thigh (hip to knee). Don't confuse with leg!
2) Leg (knee to ankle)
4) Foot: 5 digits; big toe is called the hallux
What is ANATOMICAL POSITION?
The person is standing up straight
The palms face anteriorly
The knees, elbow, and neck are straight (not bent)
The toes point anteriorly, but the fingers point inferiorly
What is Superior?
1) Superior: towards the top of the head
"The head is superior to the abdomen"
What is Inferior?
2) Inferior: towards the bottom of the feet
"The neck is superior to the pelvis"
What is Anterior?
3) Anterior (ventral): towards the front of the body
"The breastbone is anterior to the spine"
"The nose is anterior to the eyes."
What is Posterior?
4) Posterior (dorsal): towards the back of the body
"Front" is based on anatomical position, where the palm is turned up.
If I turn my hand away from you, is the back of the hand anterior? NO.
"The spine is posterior to the heart."
What is Medial?
4) Medial (not middle!): towards the midline.
"The heart is medial to the lungs."
What is Lateral?
5) Lateral: towards the sides, away from the midline of the body.
"The Lungs are lateral to the heart."
"The arms are lateral to the chest
What is Proximal?
7) Proximal: Close to the point of origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk (in most cases, closer to the heart). "The elbow is proximal to the wrist."
What is Distal?
8) Distal: away from the point of origin (in most cases, away from the heart). "The fingers are distal to the wrist."
"The knee is distal to the thigh"
What is Superficial?
9) Superficial (external): Toward or at the body surface
"The skin is superficial to the muscles."
What is Deep?
10) Deep (internal): Away from the body surface; more internal
"Bones are deep to the muscles."
"The lungs are deep to the skin"
What is Intermediate?
Intermediate: Between a more medial and a more lateral structure "The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder"
What is the Frontal (coronal) Plane?
Frontal (coronal) Plane: Divides body or organ into anterior/posterior.
What is the Sagittal Plane?
Sagittal Plane: Divides body or organ into left and right.
a) Midsagittal plane: down the midline, dividing equally right and left
b) Parasagittal plane: divides into unequal right and left parts.
What is the Transverse Plane?
Transverse Plane (Cross sec): Divides body or organ into superior/inf. parts
What are the 3 Body Cavities?
1. Thoracic cavity (contains lungs and heart)
2. Abdominal cavity (contains digestive organs)
3. Pelvic cavity (contains reproductive organs)
What separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities?
The thoracic and abdominal cavities are separated by the diaphragm.
What are the 2 Body Membranes and the space that separates them?
1. Parietal serosa (lines the body wall)
2. Visceral serosa (surrounds organ such as heart or lungs)
3. Serous cavity (space between the parietal and visceral serosa; contains fluid)
What is Flexion/Extension?
Flexion (reduces angle of joint)
Extension (returns part to anatomical position). Hyperextension goes even farther.
What is Abduction/Adduction/Rotation/Circumduction?
Abduction (takes body part away from midline)
Adduction (returns body part to midline)
Rotation (to pivot on the axis of a bone, such as shaking head "no")
Circumduction (Using the body part to draw a circle in the air)
What is Pronation (Prone) and Supination (Supine)?
Pronation (turns forearm or foot away from midline; tri-plane movement)
Prone: a POSITION, not a movement; body is lying face down.
Supination (turns forearm or foot towards midline; tri-plane movement)
Supine: a POSITION, not a movement; body is laying on the back.
What is Inversion/Eversion?
Inversion (turns foot toward midline; one plane only)
Eversion (turns foot away from midline; one plane only)
What is Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion?
Dorsiflexion: flexion of the ankle joint; to raise toes up in the air
Plantarflexion: extension of the ankle joint; to point the toes downward
What is Protraction/Retraction?
Protraction: nonangular movement of jutting out the jaw (sticks body part out anteriorly)
Retraction: opposite movement to protraction (pulls body part posteriorly)
What is Elevation/Depression?
Elevation: lifting a body superiorly (raises body part superiorly)
Depression: moving the elevated part inferiorly (pulls body part inferiorly)
What is Opposition?
Opposition (brings thumb to touch tips of fingers)