What are some factors that lowers approval rating?
Terrorist attack - the president filters the police and security, blame him.
War - causes mixed feelings
Economy drop - lacking organization, blame someone (president)
Scandal - shows lack of responsibility, and bad judgement
What are some factors that raise approval rating?
Go into war - fight back
End war - victory
it is class based, the struggle is between the poor and the rich. Proletariat (working class) vs. bourgeoisie (upper class) there will be a revolution where the proletariat will succeed.
it is a power elite. He thinks that 3 groups have power: corporate leaders, top military leaders, and top political leaders. Eisenhower had a military alliance MIC (military industrial complex) it runs the country.
Believes in bureaucracy (government agencies - FBI, post office) because they apply the laws they got a lot of power
-compromise for al the groups competing
-creates gridlock, not good, nothing gets done
What is legitimacy?
-power + authority
-the government gets legitimacy from the constitution, a charismatic leader, and history
What is democracy?
-demos (people) + kratos (authority)
-made up with representative/indirect democracy and direct democracy
What is Representative/indirect democracy?
-people choose their leaders and they rule based on being elected
What is direct democracy?
-the people decide everything
-N.E. Town Meeting: people would vote
-Referendum: the state legislator makes a law and the people vote yes or no for it
-Initiative: being put on the ballad, asked the people and made a decision for that state (gay marriage)
-Recalls: when you kick a politician out of office even after they are elected, but has to go on a ballad
a struggle about raising and setting disputes on who is going to pay or gain from it
Law of Nature
the rules that people should follow without any government - no one should violate someones natural rights (life, liberty, property)
two sides - people and government, giving up some of your freedom in return for security, the government must be controlled
Boston tea party
they wanted a monopoly of tea to go to that one tea company. Indians dumbed all the tea from the ship into the water
put limits on New England states, saying that they could only trade with England and Ireland
2nd Continental Congress
select George Washington to be commander in chief of colonial army - this lead to the revolutionary war
Plagiarism from the Declaration of Independence
-law of nature
-life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness
-overthrowing the government
Complaints from the Declaration of Independence
-no jury trials
-lack of representations
they thought it was a perfect constitution - unicameral legislator, Thomas Paine liked it, give all power to legislative power, voted by people. They passed laws but there was no way to check
the opposite of unitary, a bunch of states that can do what they want, there is a national government but it is very weak
no supreme court - certain things you want equal justice for all, like segregation and state vs. state
declare war, coin money, run the post office, be involved in the appointment of army officers
people were in debt and the result in Massachusetts was foreclosures because the state courts enforced it. Daniel Shay's house got foreclosed so he gathered people to stop the courthouse from making sessions. There was no police, so they had to raise money to hire police to stop it. This showed how weak the system was.
Thomas Jefferson Quote
"Tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with blood of Patriots and Tyrants."
wanted it to be in secret - 35 delegates were to represent the 13 colonies. Jefferson and John Adams were abroad, Samuel Adams couldn't attend, Patrick Henry "smelled a rat" and didn't want a part of it. James Madison, Alexander Hamalton, George Washington, Ben Franklin (81 - liked to drink and got escorted everywhere) all went. The task was to revise things out of the confederation but they didn't know until the end that they were going to re write all the rules.
Virginia wanted a bicameral legislature (2 houses). Representation was by population. The state legislature will be nominated.
-Members of the upper house chosen by lower house
-Members of lower house chosen by population
-The congress would choose president and appoint judges
-A council could veto acts of congress
New Jersey Plan
small states preferred this, unicameral, and one representative per state (equal representation)
The Great Compromise
2 houses (bicameral) - lower house elected by people, 65 representatives - upper house (senate) was elected by the state legislatures (later they got rid of it and now it is by the people)
separate powers - senate are moderate and keeps the house in check.
-Representatives from the house only represent a part of a state
-Senate represents the whole state
if you have a slave, then they are heavily taxed - some states were free states, 3/5 compromise = each slave would count for 3/5
-Congress regulating commerce - 2/3 votes
they postponed it for 20 years. if a slave goes to a free state, they must go back to their old state.
they had unlimited 4 year terms
- there was some debate between one 6 year term and 2 4 year terms
Big vs. small states - E.C.
# E.C. = # of Representatives (pop) + # of Senate (2 per state)
-small states get 3/538 vs. 200,000/320,000,000. They get more attention so thats why there was no direct election
He wrote a book about the motives of the Framers.
Roche's thesis was that the constitutional convention should be practical/compromise and people should sell the document back home.
- Congress was a compromise (H vs. S)
- E.C. was a compromise (small happy because of the minimum of 3 states/people happy because they vote/big states happy because they get a lot of say/house happy because they get to choose the president in case of tie/senate gets to choose the VP in case of tie
He wrote a book about the motives of the Framers. Beard's thesis was that the constitutional convention was a conspiracy of the rich, wealthy people showed up to design the system to favor elites.
-slave owners show up but don't address slavery
-the elites prick elites in the senate
-E.C. the 9 people have all the powers and are elected by president and the senate approves
-Radicals were absent, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry.
What are reasons for the Constitutional Conventions success?
-it was secret
-people were homogenous, same ideas - the trouble makers weren't there
-most were part of the continental congress, they were thinking about a weak government
Ratification and Constitution
they were supposed to get 13/13, but they only got 9/13, so ratifying the constitution was actually illegal.
(Nationalists) Federalists were represented by Hamilton and Madison. They thought that liberty was best in a large public because if everything was done in small states then when people vote, majority would crush them. In order to get anything done in a big state, you need to be moderate and compromise.
(State rights) Antifederalist were concerned about liberty and they thought that liberty would be better in a small public because they were closer to the people. They didn't like congress, s.c., president, and anti elites.
-written by Madison, Hamilton and John Jay
-published for NY to persuade NY that the constitution should be ratified
-significance was that it gave legitimacy to the constitution
-written by James Madison
-all reasons for why large republic is better
-human nature: "if men were Angels no government would be necessary" -Madison
-separation of powers (three branches have their own powers): giving government powers to make sure it checks itself
-Checks and balances: when each branch could interfer
Bill of Rights
-citizens needed guarantees that people have rights that government can't take away
-federalists didn't think they should have a bill of rights
-everyone agreed that if the people ratified the constitution, then the government would put the bill of rights in the constitution
-12 amendments were passed by congress (the bill of rights), but the states only ratified 10
-the BOR protects the people from the government
What are some reasons why we should NOT have a Bill of Rights?
1. Individual rights that people already have under the constitution
-habeas corpus: if arrested, defendant must be brought before a judge to be told what you are being charged with
-Expose facto law: commit an act that is legal at the time, and then they change the law, they can't charge you
-Bill of Attainer: a legislative act that imposes a punishment
-Jury trial in a criminal case
-no religious test: can't be restricted to get a job because of religion
-Privileges and Immunities: where ever you live, you have the same privileges
-No state can impair the obligation of a contract: if you sign a contract, you are not out of it if you move to a different state
2. Every state has its own bill of rights, so we don't need another one
3. The government we are creating are going to have specific limited powers
What are the Articles of the BOR?
-starts with "we the people"
-draw its power from the people
-sets up the goal for the constitution
Article 1: Congress = purse of community
-A lot of numbers (538)
-only branch elected by the people
-was a solution to the concern of tyranny (split in 2 parts)
Article 2: Executive - sword of community
Article 3: Judiciary
Article 4: Relationship between states (federalism)
Article 5: Amending the constitution
Article 6: Supremacy clause- federal law is supreme to state laws
Article 7: Ratification- all the names mentioned in the the BOR
Propose an Amendment:
-congress must have 2/3 majority
-34 state legislature must ask congress to go to the National Convention
-2/3 because they don't want it to be easy to change the constitution
Ratifying an Amendment:
-3/4 of the state legislature have to agree (38)
-ratifying conventions in each state (prohibition) - 3/4 majority
-president is not involved with amendments
-amendments can overturn s.c. decisions
-usually amendments take 7 years to ratify
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
-total equality of men and women (cannot distinguish between them)
-women must serve in combat duty
-all girl schools could come to an end
-could lead to the legalization to gay marriage
-divorce cases: women get custody, but this could change that
-Now: National organization of women
-35 states ratified this amendment (3 short)