Human Physiology - Chapter 4 Enzymes and Energy

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Catalysts

chemical that (1) increases the rate of a reaction, (2) is not itself changed at the end of the reaction, and )3) does not change the nature of the reaction or its final result.

enzymes

Protein Catalysts (exception RNA). They lower the activation energy.

Activation Energy

energy required to break chemical bonds

Lock-and-key model

The reactant molecules have specific shapes that allow them to fit into the active site.

Substrate

The molecule that participates in the reaction

Enzyme's Basic Rules

* Enzymes are specific
* Enzymes are required for reactions to happen
* Enzymes are proteins
* Enzymes can be turned on or off

Almost all enymes end with what letters?

-ase

Temperature

A measure of Kinetic Energy. Energy of motion.

What are the effects of Temperature on a reaction?

An increase in temperature will increase the rate and chance of a reaction.

pH optimum

peak range where activity is most likely to occer

Cofactor

extra "helper" molecule that include metal ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cu2+

Coenymes

extra "helper" moleceule. Organic molecules that offen times are transporters.

Zymogens

Inactive form of an enzyme

Phosporylation

Process of activation of an enzyme

Dephosphorylation

Process of deactivation of an enzyme

Enzymes Turnover

Breakdown and resynthesis of enzymes

Substrate Concentration

The rate of product formation will increase as the substrate concentration increases until the point of saturation

Saturation

When the relationship between substrate concentration and reaction rate reaches a plateau of maximum velocity. "All enzymes are busy"

Reversible Reaction

Both the forward and backward reactions can be catalzed by the same enzymes.

Metabolic Pathways

The sequence of chemical reactions. Begins with initial substrate, than through a number of intermediates, and ends with the final product.

1st law of Thermodynamics (conservation of energy)

Energy is not created or destroyed - it is transformed

2nd law of Themodynamics

The amount of entropy increase every time enery is transformed. Energy transformations are not perfect, some "lost" as heat.

Endergonic reactions

chemical reactions that require an input of energy

Exergonic reactions

Reactions that convert milescules with more free energy to molecule with less - release energy as they proceed

Coupled Reactions

Use energy from energy releasing reactions (exergonic) to power energy requiring reactions (endergonic)

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

*Couple reactions where electrons are transfered from one molecule to another
* 1 molecule loses e-
* 1 molecule gains e-
some energy moves with the transfer and some is lost during the transfer.

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